Feeling respected can change how hard students are willing to work in class and can cut the number of student suspensions, according to studies by Stanford University. Photo by Robert Daly/ Getty Images
“R-E-S-P-E-C-T: Find out what it means to me.”
In schools working to reduce suspension rates, teachers could take a cue from Aretha Franklin: Considering how young people view respect can greatly improve classroom management, new studies show.
A one-time intervention to help teachers and students empathize with each other halved the number of suspensions at five diverse California middle schools, and helped students who had previously been suspended feel more connected at school, according to Stanford University research published in April in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
“Changing the mindset of one teacher can change the social experience of that child’s entire world,” said Jason A. Okonofua, a Stanford University social psychologist who led the experiments.
In- and out-of-school suspensions have come under increasing scrutiny as a discipline tactic. One recent study from the University of California, Los Angeles, estimates that because suspensions are so closely linked to later school dropout and referrals to law enforcement, cutting the 16 percent nationwide rate for all 10th grade suspensions by even 1 percentage point could save taxpayers $691 million over students’ lives.
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
In a series of experiments, the Stanford researchers found teachers often view respect in terms of cooperation and compliance. For students, respect involves “a basic recognition of your humanity,” Okonofua said, including remembering a student’s name (and pronouncing it correctly), not speaking down to students or embarrassing them in front of their peers and expressing interest in their perspectives. Both college- and middle-school-age students reported losing respect for teachers who disciplined students in a dismissive or punitive way, and said that they would be more likely to misbehave in such a teacher’s class.
Feeling respected can change how hard students are willing to work in class, too.
A one-time intervention to help teachers and students empathize with each other halved the number of suspensions at five diverse California middle schools.
In a separate series of experiments, Geoffrey Cohen, a Stanford professor of organizational studies in education, found that just a short, encouraging note on a highly marked-up essay could change the way students considered their teachers’ critiques. Adding a note saying, “I’m giving you these comments because I have high standards and I know you can reach them,” significantly boosted students’ willingness to rewrite the paper: from 62 percent to 87 percent for white students, and from 17 percent to a 71 percent of black students.
“The simple act of answering, ‘Do you believe in me?’ can do wonders for a kid who believes he might not have a place in the class,” Cohen said.
There’s a dark side to the results, though, Cohen added. “What does this say about the status quo? It is failing to provide kids with the affirmation that they could and should get to fulfill their potential,” he said. “This is not about giving the kid a note, it’s about changing the culture, providing opportunities for kids to feel valued.”
Okonofua randomly asked veteran teachers to read one of two articles. One argued that good teacher-student relationships are critical for students to develop self-control — a statement aligned with what Okonofua calls an “empathic mindset”— and the other argued that punishment is critical for a teacher to take control of a classroom, a statement aligned with a more punitive mindset.
Then, both sets of teachers were asked how they would handle minor middle school behavior problems, such as disrupting class to throw away trash. Teachers who had read about the importance of relationships were more likely to speak to the student privately about classroom rules and work to find an alternative solution. Teachers who read about control and punishment were more likely to threaten or dress down the student in front of others, send him to the hall or principal’s office, or call for a meeting with the student and his parents or an administrator.
“Our emphasis on teachers’ mindsets does not diminish the importance of punitive discipline policies; rather, it illustrates one reason why such policies matter,” Okonofua said. “They create a context that discourages teachers from prioritizing building strong relationships with students at critical junctures.”
That’s important, because racial stereotypes can increase a teacher’s punitive mindset and escalate punishments. In prior studies, Okonofua and his colleagues had found that teachers are more likely to invoke stereotypes about students of color in response to minor behavioral problems. Teachers were asked to discipline minor behavior problems of middle school students with names associated with white or black children.
“For the first infraction, there was little difference in teachers’ response by race,” Okonofua said. But if, three days later, the student misbehaved in a minor way again, teachers were more bothered by the behavior and more likely to consider it part of a pattern by a “troublemaker” if the student had a “black-sounding” name. Moreover, those — mostly white and female — teachers were more likely to recommend a severe punishment like a suspension for the behavior.
“Stereotypes serve as glue, sticking otherwise unrelated behavior together to make it seem like a pattern,” Okonofua said. “The label ‘troublemaker’ leads teachers to want to discipline students more severely, because they see the behavior as a sign of disrespect.”
“Teachers are stressed out, depleted, and they can tend to lose sight of the relationships they want to build with their students.” –Jason A. Okonofua, Stanford University social psychologist
That could help explain why, in spite of a 20 percent drop in out-of-school suspensions nationwide since 2011-12, new federal civil rights data show racial disparities in discipline continue. Black students are nearly four times more likely to be suspended out of school than white students: While 6 percent of all K-12 students were suspended out of school in 2013-14, 18 percent of black boys and 10 percent of black girls were suspended, compared to only 5 percent and 2 percent for white boys and girls. Even in preschool, black children are more than three times as likely to be sent home for misbehaving than white children, federal data show.
Based on the teacher study, Okonofua and his colleagues developed a professional development workshop for teachers in five middle schools in three districts. Math teachers — chosen because math is a core subject and one associated with a high risk of stereotype threat for black and Latino students — took part in one 45-minute, in-person workshop and one 25-minute, online exercise on ways to resolve misbehavior in class. Teachers were randomly assigned to either a control group or a training focused on how stress and insecurities that children develop during adolescence can make them detach or act out in school. The teachers also heard testimony from students, talking about how they felt more cared for and respected when teachers took the time to understand them during discipline, and they worked through exercises about empathetic rather than punitive ways to respond to rule breaking.
“I don’t think the concept of empathy is something new to many teachers,” he said, but “there are a lot of other factors involved. Teachers are stressed out, depleted, and they can tend to lose sight of the relationships they want to build with their students.” The intervention is “creating a way psychologically for that empathy to persist in light of stressful environments. It’s not that [empathetic] teachers just stop disciplining students. When they discipline, they ask the student why he or she is misbehaving and try to address the misbehaving in a way that addresses the behavior instead of the identity of the child.”
In Okonofua’s study of 2,000 middle schools, students whose math teacher participated in the empathy training were half as likely to be suspended by the end of the school year than students whose teachers had not participated. The strongest effects were for students — often black and Latino boys — who had been suspended at least once in the prior year. In surveys a few months later, those same previously suspended students were also significantly more likely to report feeling that their teachers respected them if they had teachers who had participated in the empathy training.
“Just having one better relationship with a teacher at school — just one — can serve as a buffer for all the other struggles and challenges.”
“The most interesting and inspiring part is that we only intervened with one of the students’ teachers, and it affected their interactions with every other teacher. Just having one better relationship with a teacher at school — just one — can serve as a buffer for all the other struggles and challenges at school,” Okonofua said.
Geoffrey Cohen called this sort of intervention “nudge and flow” — not an attempt to teach students or educators new skills, but to “give a person encouragement at the right time to look at a context in the right way.”
The researchers plan to repeat the study with a larger group of schools next year, as well as follow up in more detail on how students’ and teachers’ feelings of respect for each other change over time.
This story was produced by Education Week. a nonprofit, independent news organization with comprehensive pre-K-12 news and analysis. Read the original post here .
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Class Surveys Project Facilitator: Christine Hockert
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Student Presentations USA, Ukraine, Russia, England, Mexico, Canada
Participating Teachers and Classes
Level - Elementary School
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Beth Stanfield & Connie Robinson
Second Grade Class
McConnell Elementary School
Hixson, Tennessee, USA
Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA
Topic - Come Visit My City
Project Web site - http://teacherweb.com/TN/McConnellElementary/HockertsGlobalProjects/photo8.aspx
Almetyevsk City, Tatarstan, Russia
Project Web site - http://www.almetk.ru/
Alizée Grayeb Cobos
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Middle School Essay Topics Perfoming Good Topics on Middle School Essays
Some students tend to get frustrated when they write their essay requirements for a class. For middle school essay topics. it is probably ideal if you could at least write articles that are suitable to the subject you are writing for while at the same time reflects your true interest. To help you acquire a good general idea of subjects to write, let us discuss sample essays that you may utilize during your middle school education.
School essay topics are so diverse. Let us talk about the possible scopes that you can tackle based on some general subject fields.Science
You can write about topics involved in Physics, Biology and Chemistry. These three natural science subjects are among the basic ones in terms of middle school curriculum. You may simply write a research essay depending on your interest.Literature
It is also possible for you to narrow down your middle school essay topic to literary subjects. You can write an Othello essay or a Romeo and Juliet article and discuss how you feel about the flow of the novels’ story lines.Personal
A personal essay can also be included in your list of essay topics. You may write an article in a form of a persuasive essay if you want to influence your readers to believe a certain notion. Try to incorporate some evidence details that will support your claims so that your article will be interesting.Technical
There are also so many middle school essay topics that are under the technical subject field. You can write about computers, a photo essay. mechanical engineering and the internet. Sometimes, it is necessary to include some pictures and diagrams to make your essay topics more attractive.
For other topics. you can check out some other entries in this website. The blog is full of information to help you manage your writing skills in every school essay projects.
Some Useful Examples on Education Essay Education covers different factors and issues. The education essay covers them all. This essay type could be descriptive, analytical, interpretive, or even argumentative, and the format would depend on the nature of the assignment. The descriptive topic: You want to describe the subject with …
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Explore Operation Exodus's board Middle School Photography Class on Pinterest. Middle School Photography Class. photography project. Project PHOTO provides a format for middle school. A Photography Primer for Middle School Students. school students to learn about photography. Browse Middle School Science Project Ideas pictures, photos, images, GIFs, and videos on Photobucket. Browse. Top Categories; Recent; Blog; Editor; Upload. Print Shop. Tackling a photography project is not only a great way to. your photography project. Photography project ideas. great because my daughters school. Jr./Middle Lessons; High Sch. Lessons;. Welcome to the home page of Jr. High / Middle School level art lessons. Peacemaker Quilt Project Personal Story Sculpture High School Photography Projects. If you would like to have your own high school photography project featured in the Student Art Guide. Photography, Digital Photography. Science Fair Project Ideas. Photography utilizes many different technologies to produce the pictures and videos we've come to. Explore Elizabeth Osborne's board Photography Projects for High School on. iPhone Photography School. The middle is a photo but the surround is drawn. My major assesment task for photography. Song: Ashes to ashes (cover) - Adam Rudegeair Quintet - The Bowie Project Reader, Your pictures give me so much inspiration and I am doing a project for a school. project even if its in the middle. Photography School.Categories
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