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Bless Me Ultima Reflective Essay Ideas

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Bless Me Ultima Evaluation Essay Research Paper

Bless Me, Ultima Evaluation Essay, Research Paper

Bless Me, Ultima, by Rudolfo A. Anaya, is a touching story of a young boy who is

learning many things rather quickly throughout his life. The trials and tribulations that he

faces are not similar to those of a normal childhood. Overall, the book is a major learning

lesson and experience for not only the characters involved, but for the reader as well. The

style and charisma with which it was written envelope the reader in a conglomeration of

feelings and emotions. Bless Me, Ultima has many characteristics that make it such a

well-written and touching story. Among these traits is the truth behind the story, the

affirmativeness that defines the characters, the impact it has on the reader, the books

vitality, and the beauty that is shown through the style and imagery with which it is

The universality that Bless Me, Ultima contains pertains to such issues as death

and restlessness or boredom. An example of the pain and suffering that Antonio has gone

through due to witnessing so many deaths in his life is shown on W-244. He is having a

nightmare after the death of his friend, Florence, when Ultima comforts him and talks to

him about the issue at hand. The strengthening of a soul, the growing up of a boy is part

of his destiny, but you have seen too much death. It is time for you to rest, to see growing

life. The difficulty that Antonio is facing is a problem that anyone could go through, no

matter how old or how young they may be. It reflects the general emotions and actions

that any human being going through something of this sort would react. A form of

restlessness or boredom that many people go through in their lives is similar to that of

which Antonio s brothers face when they return home from the war. It s hell to have

seen half the world then come back to this, Leon nodded across the river to the small

town of Guadalupe. (W-66) Due to the fact the brothers have seen so many new things

and traveled to so many places, their home town suddenly doesn t have the same feeling it

used to have before they left. This leaves them longing for something that they can t quite

reach in Guadalupe, New Mexico.

Human worth and meaning are shown through such characters as Florence,

Samuel, and Lupito. Florence is a young boy with a troubled life. Due to the fact that his

mother passed away when he was three, his father drank himself, to death, and his sisters

work at Rosie s, it leaves one to feel a sense of pity and sorrow for his current living

conditions. Because of this, he questions Antonio s beliefs when they talk of God and

catechism. So I ask myself, he continued, how can God let this happen to a kid. I

never asked to be born. But he gives me birth, a soul, and puts me here to punish me.

Why? (W-196). Lupito is another sad case because of his current state of mind. The

men of the town had murdered Lupito. But he had murdered the sheriff. They said the

war made him crazy. (W-24) On a wild tangent Lupito shot the sheriff and ran. Chavez

was enraged at the death of his brother and wanted to seek revenge. Chavez and other

men of the town then followed Lupito to the bridge where he was shot and killed in the

crossfire. Although, Lupito shot the sheriff, a sense of compassion is felt for him since his

actions are all due to the trauma he faced when fighting at war.

The joint force and full result that the story has on the reader is made through

different events that take place and actions that the characters take. The on-going

controversy in the Marez household is the question of whether Antonio is to become a

farmer and follow the Marez way or become a priest and make his mother proud. But

you will not be like them…You will be a Luna, Antonio. You will be a man of the people,

and perhaps a priest. She smiled. (W-9) The problem that Antonio faces is one that

many can relate to when forced to make a choice between two things of such great

importance. Another situation that not only leaves a lasting impression on Antonio, but on

the reader as well, is when Ultima blesses him before she dies. Her hand touched my

forehead and her last words were, I bless you in the name of all that is good and strong

and beautiful, Antonio. (W-261) Throughout Antonio and Ultima s relationship she

taught him the way of the world, how to treat it, etc. The blessing is in a sense a last

lesson for him to learn. Everything in this world must die, but that does not mean that

they can not be present in one s mind. The prayer is more or less closure for their

The work also gains a life of its own that offers great insight through Antonio s

growth as a person. By going to catechism lessons and learning more about the spiritual

world, Antonio begins to ponder many different thoughts and ideas. By not knowing what

he quite believes in yet, Antonio has many options. Not only is he faced with the problem

of his future, but with what God is the right God to believe in or is there really just one. I

am a Catholic, I stuttered, I can believe only in the God of the church… But I want to

believe,[in the Golden Carp] (W107). This intense experience and troubling matter is

one in which Antonio shares with the reader from the beginning of the story to the end of

the story. A similar case in which Antonio must learn from is when he witnesses the

deaths throughout the book. While Antonio has a talk with his father, he explains

different things about life to Antonio. Understanding comes with life…as a man grows he

sees life and death, he is happy and sad, he works, plays, meets people – sometimes it

takes a lifetime to acquire understanding (W-248). Although, he may have witnessed too

much of death at one time, Antonio learns from it and grows as a person. The examples

within the story represent the fact that one is to take the experiences throughout his/her

life and gain strength from them.

Bless Me, Ultima offers a sense of beauty by the great usage and placement of

style and imagery. Throughout the book Anaya uses metaphors and similes to effectively

relay different messages. This is shown when Cico is showing Antonio the Golden Carp.

Cico s eyes remained glued on the dark waters. His body was motionless, like a spring

awaiting release…it was just one of those places where one can communicate only in

whispers, like church. (W-113) To amplify the fact that Cico was excitedly awaiting the

Golden Carp s arrival, a simile is used. Not only is the fact then recognized by the reader

but it enhances the overall grace and ease with which the story flows. A wonderful form

of imagery is presented to the reader when Cico and Antonio are walking through

Narciso s garden. Everywhere I looked there were fruit-laden trees and rows and rows

of vegetables…The ground was soft to walk on. The fragrance of sun-dazzling flowers

was deep, and soft, and beautiful. (W-108) By using such descriptive language, one is

able to better comprehend the abundance of extravagant fruits and vegetables that are

contained within Narciso s garden. Without such imagery being used, one would not

know how awestruck Antonio was upon entering the garden or what made the garden

better than any others.

Collectively, Bless Me, Ultima has many strengths and very few weaknesses. It s

wonderful characterization, enticing imagery, and stunning universality are only the

beginning of the positive aspects of this book. Those of which are all important factors to

the contribution of making the story as impressionable as it is. Although, the only truly

negative element of this book is the reoccurrence of death. Some readers may see it as

being a bit too dissenting for the manner in which the rest of the story was written. Also,

it can seem quite unrealistic for a child of this nature to have seen so much during such a

short time span. Although, the overall worth of the novel is enhanced due to the

increasing amount of depth as the story unfolds. It is a book in which one can learn

something from after reading it time and again. In its entirety, Bless Me, Ultima is a

creative, exciting, knowledgeable, and heart warming story all in one.

Other articles

Bless Me Ultima Tony

The essays are ideal for those taking examinations in English Literature.

Bless Me Ultima Tony

Sample essay topic, essay writing: Bless Me Ultima - Tony - 788 words

Blood becomes the river. The human race dies and only the 'she-goats and the he-goats' remain (176). The lake 'cracked with laughter of madness' and the 'ghosts stood and walked upon the shore' (120). Who dares dream such gruesome images? Only Antonio Marez. He argues with God and the Virgin Mary.

He commutes with the dead; the dead asks him for blessings. Just who is this Tony person! You might not believe that this is only a seven year old kid, but he is the hero of Rudolfo Anaya's Bless Me, Ultima. Tony is valiant, and this courage sometimes reflects his curiously precocious nature. Precocious he is, he still is in constant mental ambivalence. When I say Tony is brave, I don't mean that he fights demons or kill dragons, but rather that he stands for what he believe is right and he is not afraid to go to extreme measures to protect the people he love. He shows that he is a 'man of the llano' when he 'does[n't] run from a fight' even when confronted with Horse, the notorious bully (37)

Tony also stands up against a mob for Florence; everyone wants to punish Florence for 'not believing in God' (214) and Tony pushes the crowd away and refuses to give Florence the penance that Florence does not deserve. Although Tony knows that he will be given the 'Indian torture' (214), he still speaks up for his friend. Anaya often presents Tony as a dependent character. never wanting to 'be away from the protection of [his] mother' (51); in fact, he's so close to his mother that it seems that he's going through Oedipus's Complex. Anaya actually does this to increase the impact of Tony's bravery. One might expect Tony to stay in his undercover bushes when Tenorio is standing so close; however, when Tony hears that Tenorio knows the way to kill Ultima, the thought to warn Ultima supercedes his fear and encourages his legs to pick up and run home (255). At trying times, he 'stood by Ultima' and 'would have slashed out to protect Ultima' (138).Oftentimes, Tony's bravery reflects his curious and precocious nature.

For example, he runs to the bridge where the criminal Lupito hides because he is curious about Lupito's situation (22). The first thing he wonders about when he witnesses Lupito's death is 'where was Lupito's soul?' (26). and this shows how deep Tony's thoughts are. Already at age seven, he thinks on a spiritual level. Usually, young kids do not desire to understand religious meanings and moral values, but Tony is different. Most of his thoughts reflect high mental development.

Even his dreams are witnesses to his spirituality. Adults do not dream of God saying 'Vengeance is Mine!' (173) or whether the baptism water is really holy water (120). The inclusion of dreams is actually magical realism, a stylistic device that Anaya uses to overwhelm the readers with the themes and to express the meanings of the themes in a more impacted manner. Tony's dreams shows not only his acumen but also his religious conflicts. Perhaps the most interesting trait of Tony is his ambivalence towards everything. It seems as if he is always in confusion.

His first dream portrays his insecurity about his identity. Is he a 'fine vaquero' or a 'farmer-priest' (5)? On one side is his mother and on the other is his father. Who should he become? He is also confused about which God to believe in-the Golden Carp or the Catholic God? He marvels at the 'bright golden-pagan god' (114), but at the same time fears the 'God who could not forgive' sinners' (138). At the same time he does not understand evil and good. He does not understand why God cannot forgive the good Narciso while the Virgin Mary can forgive the evil Tenorio (173).

To further confuse him, Tony sees Andrew in Rosie's (166) and remembers that Andrew has once told him in Tony's dream that '[he] will wait and not enter until [Tony] loses [his] innocence' (71). Tony's belief that 'innocence is forever' (71) is shattered, but on the other side, his mother also says to him that he is still innocent because 'you are innocent when you do not know' (71) and the priest says 'you are innocent until you understand' (71). So, is he innocent or not? He does not know whether to lose or keep his self-esteem. Tony's three characteristics are clearly displayed in the novel. He is brave, precocious, and oftentimes confused. It is interesting that these traits do not apply to young children usually.

Tony is a unique character, and is born to be a learner or a curandura like Ultima. However, Tony is an important person to study because he touches upon many profound mundane ideas that apply to social issues.

Research paper and essay writing, free essay topics, sample works Bless Me Ultima - Tony

Please do not pass this sample essay as your own, otherwise you will be accused of plagiarism. Our writers can write any custom essay for you!

  • Bless Me Ultima 2 Sample essay topic, essay writing: Bless Me Ultima 2 - 1647 words Children believe what their parents tell them but as they get older they start to question that which used to be unquestionable. Bless Me, Ultima is a novel by Rudolfo Anaya about a young Chicano boy, Antonio Juan Marez y Luna, who is growing
  • Bless me Ultima: The Growing up of a Young Boy Throughout the book Bless me Ultima, Tony, the young main character in The story, lost his innocence when exposed to the harsh world since he learned What life is really like. Ultima is a good whitch whom tries to guide Tony by Teaching him morals and lessons. Narsico is percieved as the town drunk, but
  • Bless Me Ultima Character Analysis Sample essay topic, essay writing: Bless Me Ultima - Character Analysis - 794 words The Man-Child A child is much like a far-reaching scientific experiment. Both are expensive and in constant need of attention. Nevertheless, an experiment can be terminated at anytime. The experiment of child cannot be aborted, and sometimes the Experiment fails when he or
  • Bless Me Ultima esssay 1005747 Mrs. Wanlin 9A Honors English, Block 2 3 October, 2012 Antonio’s Transformation How do we make the leap from child to adult? What obstacles must we overcome to finally reach the summit of all that we can be? Who can reform and influence our decisions, the very decisions that will shape who we become? In Bless Me Ultima by
  • Bless Me Ultima Book Report Sample essay topic, essay writing: Bless Me Ultima Book Report - 1952 words Book Report: Bless Me, UltimaTitle of Work: Bless Me UltimaAuthor & Date Written: Rudolfo Anaya 1972Country of Author: New Mexico, USACharacters: Ultima - An old Curandera who comes to spend her last days with Antonio and his family. She is Tony's mentor and

1 April 2014. Author: Criticism

Bless Me Ultima

Bless Me Ultima

Bless Me Ultima – Tony Essay, Research Paper

Blood becomes the river. The human race dies and only the “she-goats and the he-goats” remain (176). The lake “cracked with laughter of madness” and the “ghosts stood and walked upon the shore” (120). Who dares dream such gruesome images? Only Antonio Marez. He argues with God and the Virgin Mary. He commutes with the dead; the dead asks him for blessings. Just who is this Tony person! You might not believe that this is only a seven year old kid, but he is the hero of Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima. Tony is valiant, and this courage sometimes reflects his curiously precocious nature. Precocious he is, he still is in constant mental ambivalence.

When I say Tony is brave, I don’t mean that he fights demons or kill dragons, but rather that he stands for what he believe is right and he is not afraid to go to extreme measures to protect the people he love. He shows that he is a “man of the llano” when he “does[n't] run from a fight” even when confronted with Horse, the notorious bully (37). Tony also stands up against a mob for Florence; everyone wants to punish Florence for “not believing in God” (214) and Tony pushes the crowd away and refuses to give Florence the penance that Florence does not deserve. Although Tony knows that he will be given the “Indian torture” (214), he still speaks up for his friend. Anaya often presents Tony as a dependent character, never wanting to “be away from the protection of [his] mother” (51); in fact, he’s so close to his mother that it seems that he’s going through Oedipus’s Complex. Anaya actually does this to increase the impact of Tony’s bravery. One might expect Tony to stay in his undercover bushes when Tenorio is standing so close; however, when Tony hears that Tenorio knows the way to kill Ultima, the thought to warn Ultima supercedes his fear and encourages his legs to pick up and run home (255). At trying times, he “stood by Ultima” and “would have slashed out to protect Ultima” (138).

Oftentimes, Tony’s bravery reflects his curious and precocious nature. For example, he runs to the bridge where the criminal Lupito hides because he is curious about Lupito’s situation (22). The first thing he wonders about when he witnesses Lupito’s death is “where was Lupito’s soul?” (26). and this shows how deep Tony’s thoughts are. Already at age seven, he thinks on a spiritual level. Usually, young kids do not desire to understand religious meanings and moral values, but Tony is different. Most of his thoughts reflect high mental development. Even his dreams are witnesses to his spirituality. Adults do not dream of God saying “Vengeance is Mine!” (173) or whether the baptism water is really holy water (120). The inclusion of dreams is actually magical realism, a stylistic device that Anaya uses to overwhelm the readers with the themes and to express the meanings of the themes in a more impacted manner. Tony’s dreams shows not only his acumen but also his religious conflicts.

Perhaps the most interesting trait of Tony is his ambivalence towards everything. It seems as if he is always in confusion. His first dream portrays his insecurity about his identity. Is he a “fine vaquero” or a “farmer-priest” (5)? On one side is his mother and on the other is his father. Who should he become? He is also confused about which God to believe in-the Golden Carp or the Catholic God? He marvels at the “bright golden-pagan god” (114), but at the same time fears the “God who could not forgive” sinners” (138). At the same time he does not understand evil and good. He does not understand why God cannot forgive the good Narciso while the Virgin Mary can forgive the evil Tenorio (173). To further confuse him, Tony sees Andrew in Rosie’s (166) and remembers that Andrew has once told him in Tony’s dream that “[he] will wait and not enter until [Tony] loses [his] innocence” (71). Tony’s belief that “innocence is forever” (71) is shattered, but on the other side, his mother also says to him that he is still innocent because “you are innocent when you do not know” (71) and the priest says “you are innocent until you understand” (71). So, is he innocent or not? He does not know whether to lose or keep his self-esteem.

Tony’s three characteristics are clearly displayed in the novel. He is brave, precocious, and oftentimes confused. It is interesting that these traits do not apply to young children usually. Tony is a unique character, and is born to be a learner or a curandura like Ultima. However, Tony is an important person to study because he touches upon many profound mundane ideas that apply to social issues.

Реферат на тему Bless Me Ultima

Bless Me Ultima – Tony Essay, Research Paper

Blood becomes the river. The human race dies and only the “she-goats and the he-goats” remain (176). The lake “cracked with laughter of madness” and the “ghosts stood and walked upon the shore” (120). Who dares dream such gruesome images? Only Antonio Marez. He argues with God and the Virgin Mary. He commutes with the dead; the dead asks him for blessings. Just who is this Tony person! You might not believe that this is only a seven year old kid, but he is the hero of Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima. Tony is valiant, and this courage sometimes reflects his curiously precocious nature. Precocious he is, he still is in constant mental ambivalence.

When I say Tony is brave, I don’t mean that he fights demons or kill dragons, but rather that he stands for what he believe is right and he is not afraid to go to extreme measures to protect the people he love. He shows that he is a “man of the llano” when he “does[n't] run from a fight” even when confronted with Horse, the notorious bully (37). Tony also stands up against a mob for Florence; everyone wants to punish Florence for “not believing in God” (214) and Tony pushes the crowd away and refuses to give Florence the penance that Florence does not deserve. Although Tony knows that he will be given the “Indian torture” (214), he still speaks up for his friend. Anaya often presents Tony as a dependent character, never wanting to “be away from the protection of [his] mother” (51); in fact, he’s so close to his mother that it seems that he’s going through Oedipus’s Complex. Anaya actually does this to increase the impact of Tony’s bravery. One might expect Tony to stay in his undercover bushes when Tenorio is standing so close; however, when Tony hears that Tenorio knows the way to kill Ultima, the thought to warn Ultima supercedes his fear and encourages his legs to pick up and run home (255). At trying times, he “stood by Ultima” and “would have slashed out to protect Ultima” (138).

Oftentimes, Tony’s bravery reflects his curious and precocious nature. For example, he runs to the bridge where the criminal Lupito hides because he is curious about Lupito’s situation (22). The first thing he wonders about when he witnesses Lupito’s death is “where was Lupito’s soul?” (26). and this shows how deep Tony’s thoughts are. Already at age seven, he thinks on a spiritual level. Usually, young kids do not desire to understand religious meanings and moral values, but Tony is different. Most of his thoughts reflect high mental development. Even his dreams are witnesses to his spirituality. Adults do not dream of God saying “Vengeance is Mine!” (173) or whether the baptism water is really holy water (120). The inclusion of dreams is actually magical realism, a stylistic device that Anaya uses to overwhelm the readers with the themes and to express the meanings of the themes in a more impacted manner. Tony’s dreams shows not only his acumen but also his religious conflicts.

Perhaps the most interesting trait of Tony is his ambivalence towards everything. It seems as if he is always in confusion. His first dream portrays his insecurity about his identity. Is he a “fine vaquero” or a “farmer-priest” (5)? On one side is his mother and on the other is his father. Who should he become? He is also confused about which God to believe in-the Golden Carp or the Catholic God? He marvels at the “bright golden-pagan god” (114), but at the same time fears the “God who could not forgive” sinners” (138). At the same time he does not understand evil and good. He does not understand why God cannot forgive the good Narciso while the Virgin Mary can forgive the evil Tenorio (173). To further confuse him, Tony sees Andrew in Rosie’s (166) and remembers that Andrew has once told him in Tony’s dream that “[he] will wait and not enter until [Tony] loses [his] innocence” (71). Tony’s belief that “innocence is forever” (71) is shattered, but on the other side, his mother also says to him that he is still innocent because “you are innocent when you do not know” (71) and the priest says “you are innocent until you understand” (71). So, is he innocent or not? He does not know whether to lose or keep his self-esteem.

Tony’s three characteristics are clearly displayed in the novel. He is brave, precocious, and oftentimes confused. It is interesting that these traits do not apply to young children usually. Tony is a unique character, and is born to be a learner or a curandura like Ultima. However, Tony is an important person to study because he touches upon many profound mundane ideas that apply to social issues.

Bless Me, Ultima Summary and Cliff Notes

Bless Me, Ultima is the story of Antonion Marez y Luna, a young man living in New Mexico just after the close of World War II. Antonio narrates the story of his youth from an older perspective, reflecting on his relationship with his mentor, Ultima, a midwife and virtuous witch. Tony faces crises of faith and identity as well as the terrors of black magic while learning at Ultima's side, eventually forming his own ideas separate from the Catholicism of his mother and the sensualism of his father.

Summary of Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya

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Bless Me, Ultima Lesson Plans (Sponsored)

Rationale - Bless Me, Ultima - Unraveling a Dream

          • Smart goals
          • 1. Currently 48% of my CP English 3 students are able to write a complex thesis with a score of 2 or better score (on a 3 point scale). By April 2009 80% of my students will be able to write a complex thesis with a score of 2 or better score (on a 3 point scale).

            2. Currently of my CP English 3 students are able to write a response to literature essay at a 4 or above using the 9 point holistic English department rubric. By the end of the unit 90% of my students will have written a reflective essay on their sense of place by researching key issues and revising, editing, and peer editing their work.

3. Currently 53 of my CP English 3 students scored at the following levels on the fall benchmark writing exam on persuasive writing.
9 score point = 0
8 score point = 0
7 score point = 0
6 score point = 3%
5 score point = 26%
4 score point = 37%
3 score point = 28%
2 score point = 3%
1 score point = 0

Benchmarks are scored by two readers from the Eng/ELD department on a 9 pt holistic rubric. This rubric is developmental measure of students growth in writing. It is not expected that juniors write at a 9 level. The goal for juniors is to write at a 6 score point by the end of the year. My goal for this group of students is by May 80% of my students will have improved their score by 1 score point.

4. Currently 79% of my CP English 3 students can use PowerPoint proficiently and 50% have used iMovie or Movie Maker. By the end of March 90% of my students can use PowerPoint, iMovie, or Moviemaker proficiently as measured by the pre and post class survey and the development of multi media projects.

5. Currently 74% of my CP English 3 students know how to use a digital camera and download files. By the end of March 90% of my students will know how to use a digital camera by producing an autobiographical multi-media project.
  • Outcomes
    • Students will participate in a Socratic inquiry which focuses on the tensions between globalization and localization.
    • Students will learn prerequisite skills such as Cornell Note Taking, vocabulary building, Socratic questioning, drafting the essay with a complex thesis, citation skills and annotation skills.
    • Students will create a powerpoint or movie about symbolism in Bless Me, Ultima.
    • Students will write a response to literature essay analyzing symbolism in the Antonio's dreams in Bless Me, Ultima.
    • Students will prepare and complete a notebook of their work on Bless Me, Ultima .
    • Students will continue to develop their analysis, application, and synthesis skills by using extended metaphors.
  • Standards
    • 1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development.
      Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately.
    • Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.3 Discern the meaning of analogies encountered, analyzing specific comparisons as well as relationships and inferences.
2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 Analyze the way in which clarity of meaning is affected by the patterns of organization, hierarchical structures, repetition of the main ideas, syntax, and word choice in the text.
2.3 Verify and clarify facts presented in other types of expository texts by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.
2.4 Make warranted and reasonable assertions about the author's arguments by using elements of the text to defend and clarify interpretations.
2.5 Analyze an author's implicit and explicit philosophical assumptions and beliefs about a subject.

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2 Analyze the way in which the theme or meaning of a selection represents a view or comment on life, using textual evidence to support the claim.

3.3 Analyze the ways in which irony, tone, mood, the author's style, and the "sound" of language achieve specific rhetorical or aesthetic purposes or both.

3.4 Analyze ways in which poets use imagery, personification, figures of speech, and sounds to evoke readers' emotions.

3.5 Analyze recognized works of American literature representing a variety of genres and traditions:
c. Evaluate the philosophical, political, religious, ethical, and social influences of the historical period that shaped the characters, plots, and settings.

3.6 Analyze the way in which authors through the centuries have used archetypes drawn from myth and tradition in literature, film, political speeches, and religious writings (e.g. how the archetypes of banishment from an ideal world may be used to interpret Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth).

Literary Criticism
3.9 Analyze the philosophical arguments presented in literary works to determine whether the authors' positions have contributed to the quality of each work and the credibility of the characters. (Philosophical approach)

Writing
1.0 Writing Strategies

Students write coherent and focused texts that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students' awareness of the audience and purpose and progression through the stages of the writing process.

Organization and Focus
1.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g. purpose, speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments.
1.2 Use point of view, characterization, style (e.g. use of irony), and related elements for specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes.
1.3 Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples.
1.5 Use language in natural, fresh, and vivid ways to establish a specific tone.

Research and Technology
1.6 Develop presentations by using clear research questions and creative and critical research strategies (e.g. field studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, electronic sources).
1.7 Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g. anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies).
1.8 Integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.

Evaluation and Revision
1.9 Revise text to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and genre.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

Using the writing strategies of grades eleven and twelve outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Write fictional, autobiographical, or biographical narratives:
a. Narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience.
b. Locate scenes and incidents in specific places.
c. Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the characters' feelings.
d. Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate temporal, spatial, and dramatic mood changes.
e. Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details.

2.2 Write responses to literature:
a. Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas in works or passages.
b. Analyze the use of imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text.
c. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text and to other works.
d. Demonstrate an understanding of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.
e. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.

2.3 Write reflective compositions:
a. Explore the significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns by using rhetorical strategies (e.g. narration, description, exposition, persuasion).
b. Draw comparisons between specific incidents and broader themes that illustrate the writer's important beliefs or generalizations about life.
c. Maintain a balance in describing individual incidents and relate those incidents to more general and abstract ideas.

2.6 Deliver multimedia presentations:

a. Combine text, images, and sound and draw information from many sources (e.g. television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, the Internet, electronic media-generated images).
b. Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.
c. Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for quality.
d. Test the audience's response and revise the presentation accordingly.

Written and Oral English Language Conventions

The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.

1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions

Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions.
1.1 Demonstrate control of grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and an understanding of English usage.
1.2 Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct punctuation and capitalization.

Listening and Speaking
1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies

Students formulate adroit judgments about oral communication. They deliver focused and coherent presentations that convey clear and distinct perspectives and demonstrate solid reasoning. They use gestures, tone, and vocabulary tailored to the audience and purpose.

Comprehension
1.1 Recognize strategies used by the media to inform, persuade, entertain, and transmit culture (e.g. advertisements; perpetuation of stereotypes; use of visual representations, special effects, language).
1.2 Analyze the impact of the media on the democratic process (e.g. exerting influence on elections, creating images of leaders, shaping attitudes) at the local, state, and national levels.
1.3 Interpret and evaluate the various ways in which events are presented and information is communicated by visual image makers (e.g. graphic artists, documentary filmmakers, illustrators, news photographers).
1.7 Use appropriate rehearsal strategies to pay attention to performance details, achieve command of the text, and create skillful artistic staging.
1.8 Use effective and interesting language, including:
a. Informal expressions for effect
b. Standard American English for clarity
c. Technical language for specificity
1.10 Evaluate when to use different kinds of effects (e.g. visual, music, sound, graphics) to create effective productions.

Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications
1.14 Analyze the techniques used in media messages for a particular audience and evaluate their effectiveness (e.g. Orson Welles' radio broadcast "War of the Worlds").

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students deliver polished formal and extemporaneous presentations that combine traditional rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

Using the speaking strategies of grades eleven and twelve outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Deliver reflective presentations:
a. Explore the significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns, using appropriate rhetorical strategies (e.g. narration, description, exposition, persuasion).
b. Draw comparisons between the specific incident and broader themes that illustrate the speaker's beliefs or generalizations about life.
c. Maintain a balance between describing the incident and relating it to more general, abstract ideas.

2.3 Deliver oral responses to literature:
a. Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas of literary works (e.g. make assertions about the text that are reasonable and supportable).
b. Analyze the imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text through the use of rhetorical strategies (e.g. narration, description, persuasion, exposition, a combination of those strategies).
c. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works.
d. Demonstrate an awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.
e. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.

2.4 Deliver multimedia presentations:
a. Combine text, images, and sound by incorporating information from a wide range of media, including films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, online information, television, videos, and electronic media-generated images.
b. Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.
c. Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for quality.
d. Test the audience's response and revise the presentation accordingly.