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Alytes Classification Essay

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StateMaster - Encyclopedia: Midwife toad

Alytes cisternasii Boscá, 1879.
Alytes dickhilleni Arntzen et García-París, 1995.
Alytes maurus Pasteur et Bons, 1962.
Alytes muletensis (Sanchíz et Adrover, 1979).
Alytes obstetricans (Laurenti, 1768).
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1374x1016, 170 KB) Description: Alytes obstetricans. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anenomes) Placozoa (trichoplax) Subregnum Bilateria (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Orthonectida (flatworms, echinoderms, etc. Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicatas Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with. For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia The Anura is the order of animals in the class Amphibia that includes frogs and toads. Species Genus Alytes Alytes cisternasii Alytes dickhilleni Alytes muletensis Alytes obstetricans Genus Discoglossus Discoglossus hispanicus Discoglossus jeanneae Discoglossus montalenti Discoglossus nigriventer Discoglossus pictus Discoglossus sardus Discoglossidae, common name Disc-Tongued Frogs or Painted Frogs, is a family that contains two genera, alytes and discoglossus. Johann Georg Wagler (1800 - 1832) was a German herpetologist. 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar).

Midwife toads (Alytes ) is a genus of frogs in the Discoglossidae family, and are found in most of Europe and northwestern Africa. Characteristic of these toad-like frogs is their parental care: the males carry a string of fertilised eggs on their back, hence the name "midwife ". The female expels a strand of eggs, which the male fertilizes externally. He then wraps them around his legs to protect them from predators in the water. When they are ready to hatch, the male wades into shallow water, where he allows the tadpoles to leap out of their eggs. Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - Full list of families Frog is the common name for amphibians in the order Anura. Species Genus Alytes Alytes cisternasii Alytes dickhilleni Alytes muletensis Alytes obstetricans Genus Discoglossus Discoglossus hispanicus Discoglossus jeanneae Discoglossus montalenti Discoglossus nigriventer Discoglossus pictus Discoglossus sardus Discoglossidae, common name Disc-Tongued Frogs or Painted Frogs, is a family that contains two genera, alytes and discoglossus. A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day. Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant.


Apoptosis. the programmed cell death. was first observed in the developing of the tadpoles of the midwife toads 1842 by Carl Vogt. Apoptosis In biology, apoptosis (from the Greek words apo = from and ptosis = falling, commonly pronounced ap-a-tow-sis[1]) is one of the main types of programmed cell death (PCD). Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. Karl Christoph Vogt (July 5, 1817 – May 5, 1895) was a German scientist moved to Switzerland.

Categories: Reptile and amphibian stubs | Toads

Other articles

Alytes maurus - The Full Wiki

Alytes maurus: Wikis

Alytes maurus Pasteur & Bons, 1962

Type locality: "Talass n 'Tane (Rif près de Bab-Taza)", Morocco.

Synonyms
  • Alytes obstetricans maurus Pasteur & Bons, 1962
  • Alytes (Alytes) obstetricans maurus — Dubois. 1987
  • Alytes (Baleaphryne) maurus — Donaire-Barroso & Bogaerts, 2003
References
  • Pasteur and Bons. 1962, Bull. Soc. Zool. France. 87. 71.
  • Donaire-Barroso and Bogaerts. 2003, Butll. Soc. Catalana Herpetol. 16. 25.
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2007. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.1 (10 October, 2007). Electronic Database accessible at [1] American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Alytes maurus . Accessed on 13 July 2008.
  • 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species IUCN link. Alytes maurus (Near Threatened) Downloaded on 13 July 2008.
Vernacular names

English: Moroccan Midwife Toad

ADW: Alytes obstetricans: CLASSIFICATION

To cite this page: Myers, P. R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2016. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed at http://animaldiversity.org.

Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services.

The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support.

Midwife toad

midwife toad

a European toad, Alytes obstetricans (family Discoglossidae), noted for its unusual breeding habits, in which mating occurs on land and the male broods the egg strings by wrapping them around his legs.

slow-moving, terrestrial amphibian represented by four species of the genus Alytes (family Discoglossidae). The best-known species is A. obstetricans. These western European toads live in forests and often near ponds and streams in open areas. Midwife toads are about 5 cm (2 inches) long and plump, with warty, dull-gray skin.

Midwife toads are nocturnal and thoroughly terrestrial. Toward evening, the males reveal their presence by a clear whistling note. Mating takes place on land and occurs throughout the spring and summer. The eggs are large and yellow, and they are produced in two rosarylike strands of gelatinous capsules. While the eggs are being extruded, the male discharges milt (sperm-containing fluid) over them to effect fertilization. Once he has fertilized the eggs, the male twists the egg strings around his legs and waist and returns to his usual moist retreat. If the weather is exceptionally dry, the male makes periodic trips to moisten the eggs and prevent their dehydration. When the time for hatching arrives, after about three weeks, the male enters the water; the larvae, measuring slightly more than 1.3 cm (0.5 inch), emerge from their egg envelope, which is not abandoned by the male until all the young are liberated.

Look at other dictionaries:

Midwife toad — Alytes obstetricans Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia … Wikipedia

midwife toad — noun 1. similar in habit to Alytes obstetricians • Syn: ↑Alytes cisternasi • Hypernyms: ↑frog, ↑toad, ↑toad frog, ↑anuran, ↑batrachian, ↑salientian … Useful english dictionary

midwife toad — mid′wife toad n. ram a European toad, Alytes obstetricans: the male broods the egg strings by wrapping them around his legs • Etymology: 1900–05 … From formal English to slang

midwife toad — noun a European toad, the male of which has a distinctive piping call in spring and carries the developing eggs wrapped around his hind legs. [Alytes obstetricans.] … English new terms dictionary

Betic Midwife Toad — Conservation status Vulnerable (IUCN 3.1) Scientific classification Kingdo … Wikipedia

Common Midwife Toad — Conservation status Least Concern (IUCN 3.1 … Wikipedia

toad frog — noun any of various tailless stout bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial species • Syn: ↑frog, ↑toad, ↑anuran, ↑batrachian, ↑salientian • Derivationally related forms: ↑batrachian ( … Useful english dictionary

midwife frog — noun or midwife toad. obstetrical toad … Useful english dictionary

Die Verbreitung der Geburtshelferkröte (Alytes obstetricans) im Kanton Basel-Landschaft (NW-Schweiz) - Zurich Open Repository and Archive

Zurich Open Repository and Archive Die Verbreitung der Geburtshelferkröte (Alytes obstetricans) im Kanton Basel-Landschaft (NW-Schweiz)

Schmidt, B R ; Tobler, U ; Ramseier, P (2010). Die Verbreitung der Geburtshelferkröte (Alytes obstetricans) im Kanton Basel-Landschaft (NW-Schweiz). Mitteilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaften beider Basel, 12:75-84.

Abstract

Distribution of the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in the canton Basel-Landschaft (NW Switzerland). The midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) is among the most strongly declining of Swiss amphibian species. This article documents the status of the midwife toad in the canton of Basel-Landschaft in northern Switzerland. The survey showed that only a few known populations had gone locally extinct. Many hitherto unknown populations were reported for the first time. Most populations were very small. Regular counts of the number of calling males in the amphibian breeding sites of federal importance show that population counts fluctuated strongly but remained stationary over eight years. The distribution of a pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) was also surveyed in order to assess whether it represents a threat for midwife toad populations in canton Basel-Landschaft. The chytrid fungus turned out to be widespread but there was no evidence for chytrid-associated population declines.
Overall, the status of the midwife toad in canton Basel-Landschaft is good. The canton should ensure that the midwife toad remains widespread in its territory because the species is declining elsewhere in Switzerland.

Distribution of the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in the canton Basel-Landschaft (NW Switzerland). The midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) is among the most strongly declining of Swiss amphibian species. This article documents the status of the midwife toad in the canton of Basel-Landschaft in northern Switzerland. The survey showed that only a few known populations had gone locally extinct. Many hitherto unknown populations were reported for the first time. Most populations were very small. Regular counts of the number of calling males in the amphibian breeding sites of federal importance show that population counts fluctuated strongly but remained stationary over eight years. The distribution of a pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) was also surveyed in order to assess whether it represents a threat for midwife toad populations in canton Basel-Landschaft. The chytrid fungus turned out to be widespread but there was no evidence for chytrid-associated population declines.
Overall, the status of the midwife toad in canton Basel-Landschaft is good. The canton should ensure that the midwife toad remains widespread in its territory because the species is declining elsewhere in Switzerland.

Citations

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Midwife toad

midwife toad Look at other dictionaries:

Midwife toad — Alytes obstetricans Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia … Wikipedia

midwife toad — a European toad, Alytes obstetricans (family Discoglossidae), noted for its unusual breeding habits, in which mating occurs on land and the male broods the egg strings by wrapping them around his legs. [1900 05] * * * ▪ amphibian slow moving,… … Universalium

midwife toad — mid′wife toad n. ram a European toad, Alytes obstetricans: the male broods the egg strings by wrapping them around his legs • Etymology: 1900–05 … From formal English to slang

midwife toad — noun a European toad, the male of which has a distinctive piping call in spring and carries the developing eggs wrapped around his hind legs. [Alytes obstetricans.] … English new terms dictionary

Betic Midwife Toad — Conservation status Vulnerable (IUCN 3.1) Scientific classification Kingdo … Wikipedia

Common Midwife Toad — Conservation status Least Concern (IUCN 3.1 … Wikipedia

toad frog — noun any of various tailless stout bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping; semiaquatic and terrestrial species • Syn: ↑frog, ↑toad, ↑anuran, ↑batrachian, ↑salientian • Derivationally related forms: ↑batrachian ( … Useful english dictionary

midwife frog — noun or midwife toad. obstetrical toad … Useful english dictionary

Mallorcan midwife toad videos, photos and facts - Alytes muletensis

Mallorcan midwife toad (Alytes muletensis)

This unusual toad gains its name from the fact that males care for the developing eggs (2). Adults have a large head and long legs in relation to the body, the eyes are large and golden with a narrow vertical pupil (2). The skin is usually golden-brown in colour with a number of darker brown, green or black blotches, whilst the underparts are off-white (6). There is often a black triangle between the eyes. Males and females are difficult to distinguish from their appearance (2) .

Also known as Ferreret. Spanish Ferreret. Size Male length: up to 34.7 mm (2) Female length: up to 38 mm (2)

Related species

Moroccan midwife toad
(Alytes maurus)

Betic midwife toad
(Alytes dickhilleni)

Iberian midwife toad
(Alytes cisternasii)

Mallorcan midwife toad biology

The Mallorcan midwife toad has an unusual breeding system. Intense competition for males occurs amongst females, who grapple with each other over mates (3). In common with other members of this unusual genus, males carry the developing eggs until the tadpoles hatch (3). Males carrying eggs are seen in May and June, with between 7 and 12 eggs wrapped around their ankles in strings (3). The first tadpoles hatch in May, measuring around 18 mm in length. Tadpoles metamorphose any time from late June to September and some may even over-winter as tadpoles and metamorphose the following summer (6). Males produce a high-pitched 'pi. pi. pi' call, which attracts females and may help to stimulate the maturation of eggs by the female (2) ; females also vocalise to advertise when they are receptive (3). Adults are generally active at night and they do not hibernate (3) .

Mallorcan midwife toad range

Endemic to Mallorca, an island off the east coast of Spain (2). this toad is currently found in gorges (4) in the Sierra de Tramuntana Mountains (2). The distribution was once considerably larger than at present; recent surveys estimate there may now be as few as 500 breeding pairs remaining (4) .

Species with a similar range

Red-veined darter
(Sympetrum fonscolombii)

Common scarlet-darter
(Crocothemis erythraea)

Classified as Vulnerable (VU D2) on the IUCN Red List 2004 (1) .

Mallorcan midwife toad threats

This species was identified from fossils in the 1970s and was believed to have become extinct 2000 years ago, incredibly however, surviving populations were discovered in 1980 (3). Since then this toad has decreased markedly in abundance and range. The decline in the Mallorcan midwife toad was the result of the introduction to the island of competitors and predators such as the viperine snake (Natrix maura ), which predates on both adult toads and tadpoles, and the green frog (Rana perezi ) (4) that competes for food (2). Increased demands for water due to the large number of tourists visiting the island places pressure on mountain water resources, and a number of schemes have proposed to dam the rivers in which this toad lives. A further threat arises from the small size of the remaining population, which places the species at risk of extinction from chance catastrophic events (2) .

Mallorcan midwife toad conservation

A conservation project is underway, with cooperation between the Mallorcan Consellaria de Medi Ambient, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology at Kent University and the Barcelona Zoo (5) (6). The species breeds well in captivity and reintroductions have been taking place since 1988, with several breeding populations already successfully established as a result (4). Annual surveys are taking place and a reserve has been proposed to help protect the species (4). The number of suitable sites for reintroduction is limited, so work is currently focusing on the creation of new pools (4). With such concerted conservation efforts, the future of this fascinating species may well be secured, at least for the present.

Find out more

For more information on the Mallorcan midwife toad see:

Authentication

Information authenticated (12/6/03) by Richard Gibson, Curator of Herpetology, Zoological Society of London.
http://www.zsl.org

Glossary

Endemic A species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area. Genus A category used in taxonomy, which is below ‘family’ and above ‘species’. A genus tends to contain species that have characteristics in common. The genus forms the first part of a ‘binomial’ Latin species name; the second part is the specific name. Hibernate/ Hibernation A winter survival strategy characteristic of some mammals in which an animal’s metabolic rate slows down and a state of deep sleep is attained. Whilst hibernating, animals survive on stored reserves of fat that they have accumulated in summer. In insects, the correct term for hibernation is ‘diapause’, a temporary pause in development and growth. Any stage of the lifecycle (eggs, larvae, pupae or adults) may enter diapause, which is typically associated with winter. Metamorphosis An abrupt physical change from the larval to the adult form.

References

Mallorcan midwife toad, close up

Link to this photo

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