The West Indian Festival Essay, Research Paper The West Indian Festival Carnival was the largest, most colorful and vibrant ethnic cultural festival I had ever experienced in my life. Carnival is what the West Indians call this outrageous event. Carnival is only one aspect of the Caribbean Culture. Every year this event takes place on Blue Hill Ave in Dorchester, Boston. All the streets surrounding Blue Hill Ave. are closed for this annual special event. It was a hot summer day on August 28th, 1999. My best friend Jessica and I had been anxiously waiting for this event to arrive. As we approached the scenery of a huge crowd, I felt a vibrating feeling from my stomach going all the way out of my mouth into a huge giggling outburst. It was a feeling of joy and excitement. I
could hear the loud Soca, Calypso and reggae music piercing through my ears, playing out of the back of these huge shiny silver trucks. All the men and women were wearing colorful, glamorous and exotic costumes. My favorite costume that I saw was an all white feather costume with diamond studs on the crown and a white feather skirt with diamond studs all around it. The big silver trucks had large loud speakers in the back and some island girls dancing in the back, doing a special dance called whinning were they move their waist lines in a circle motion. I was wearing my red halter-top, black Capri pants and white tennis shoes. The colors of my clothing represented the color of Trinidad which is my mother comes from. As Jessica and I walked among the huge crowd squeezing ourselves
through the crowd; I could smell some spicy dishes of curry chicken, jerk chicken, rice and beans as well as a chicken rhotti which is made out of a soft fluffy pita bread stuffed with curry chicken and boiled potatoes. Waiving my tiny Trinidad flag in the air, I danced like never before in the crowd to my favorite Soca song “Respond”. I was having the time of my life singing and dancing through the festivities. While I was dancing with joy it started to rain and everybody kept on dancing and jumping around. It was even more fun dancing in the rain; it made the Carnival more wild and adventurous. I will never forget this incredible event. I felt as if I was on top of the world. I guess once in everyone’s lifetime there is always one memorable day whether it is fun or sad. I
am already visualizing another Boston Carnival in the year 2000.
09/08/13 The Occasional Essay . Redefining Value As a writer sits and processes, they hold the strongest thing in their hand which is a pencil. A pencil allows a writer to express their true feelings towards a subject and struggle through a topic together. This pencil is our friend in this process.
PressReleasePing First Ever Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan International Festival brings 10 days of music, film art, TEDx, Full and Half Marathon, and Valentine Romance Feb 1423, 2015 The first ever annual festival in the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan brings together 10 days of arts, film, music.
sample essay for Kids, School Students, College Students as well as for those who are preparing for essay competition. It must be noted down that this essay can be translated to other languages such as Hindi, Urdu and etc by using the Google Language translation services. Free Essay on Festivals of India.
survival of this type of feminine noun in the modern language. To my mind, the best essays are deeply personal (that doesn’t necessarily mean autobiographical) and deeply engaged with issues and ideas. And the best essays show that the name of the genre is also a verb, so they demonstrate a mind in process--reflecting.
Page 1 of 4 Woodstock Festival was a three day event of music and peace, held at Max Yasgur’s dairy farm, in the town of Bethel, New York. It took place on the dates August 15th-18th, 1969. Five hundred thousand people attended the festival . watching thirty-two acts perform over the three days. It.
present here, today I, Arpit Patel of standard 8th is going to give a speech on DEEPAWALI. DIWALI or DEEPAWALI, the festival of lights, is one of the important and widely spread festival celebrated in India. It is a celebration of lights, and for many, it is truly a sensory experience; some families decorate.
April, 2nd, 2012 Synthesis essay Today we live in a society that is often called a "salad bowl". It is called a "salad bowl" because it consists of various different people from various different backgrounds. We all live together in a society, but we still retain our own distinct flavors which helps.
Many festivals are celebrated in India. Diwali is the most important festival of India. It is a festival of Hindus but everyone participates in it. It is called Deepawali also. This festival falls in October or in the first week of November. When Lord Rama killed the Ravana-symbol of sin-and returned.
was stationed in Hawaii. There, I attended a private Christian school. The school’s curriculum included many fieldtrips to allow the students to see our island of Oahu. During my third year, my school had a fieldtrip to the Pearl Harbor Memorial. There, I saw a huge ship partially sunk in the water.
Advantages of Festivals - 1 Festivals celebration is the the culture we got from our past generations.According to the history these festivals are celebrated when they achieve something (symbol of victory),or on the occasions where they are benefited (crop gain,happy with some gatherings etc). These.
LEADERSHIP. A PEBBLE OF CHANGE Leadership seemed like a really easy topic to write an essay on. Though on the contrary, while thinking about it I was thrown in a tornado of contemplation. Does being a leader, I wondered, just mean being accomplished, being successful? Does getting straight A’s make.
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the story and adding to the atmosphere, is the gathering of the villager at the town square. All folks are coming together in some what it seem a festival . or some sort of celebration. I was unprepared to what seems to what I’m going to read after all, The men in Jackson’s short story” The lottery”.
Water Festival in USA I am so excited to write about the experience essay . This is interesting because we are not going to write about the experience that we have already had, but an experience that we have never had before. So I am choosing to write about the Burmese Traditional Water Festival in USA.
this essay I called the losses a potential profit loss rather than factual losses, because this day and age the loss due to music swapping is unavoidable. The recording industry needs to recognize this new trend and shift its focus for profits into online markets, tours, and music festivals . The.
PHYSICS ESSAY HOW ELECTROSTATICS INFLUENCE OUR LIVES? INTRODUCTION We all are familiar with the term electricity which comes from batteries and which is used to light bulbs, buzzers, and other electrical devices. We also know that conductors are those objects which conduct electricity easily and insulators.
races and religious beliefs. Some countries integrate different people into one national culture, while others have a multicultural society. In this essay . both sides of this issue will be discussed. It is obvious that all immigrants living the one lifestyle can make nations all in good order, and.
3 National festivals Independence Day Independence Day, August 15, commemorates the day in 1947 when India achieved freedom from British rule. The day is celebrated to commemorate the birth of the world`s biggest democracy as a national festival . Till Independence, there is no true national.
It is no doubt that music has played a vital role in our society. Everything from loud, head-banging concerts to religious ceremonies have utilized the medium of music because of its awe-inspiring qualities. Music is basically the control of sound. We can control this sound by varying the pitch, tempo.
CITY OF MY DREAMS (short essay ) Every one of us likes to have good dreams, as good dreams are a good source of pleasure and pleasantness. Dreaming good dreams is not bad, as they not only delight us but also become a good cause to motivate us so that we can pave the ways to fulfill the objectives.
information you need to keep in mind when writing an essay . its specific structure, formatting requirements, special writing techniques to improve your style, etc. Knowing the topic and having a rough plan is just the beginning on the long way to crafting a great essay . If you have an opportunity to use professional.
An Essay on the Diwali Festival for School and College Students Essay Diwali is one of the most important festivals of India. The word Diwali is an incorrect from of the word "Dipawali" which means "rows of light". The festival of Diwali takes place on the fifteenth day in the month of Kartik when.
nearly impossible to pick just one to visit. So why pick just one? Why not take a road-trip and get a taste of the history and the eclectic nature of our state? Travel from corner to corner of the state, and relive Georgia's Civil War past. From bloody battlefields to mist-shrouded cemeteries, you'll.
scorn, as it does when we hear a campaign speech and mutter, "That's just rhetoric"? The answer is 1965, says John McWhorter in his recent book, "Doing Our Own Thing: The Degradation of Language and Music and Why We Should, Like, Care" (Gotham Books, 279 pages, $26). That happened to be the year McWhorter.
America and Indian. There are so different reasons which make me unique in this country. I am a person who is proud of my clothing, languages and festivals . First of all, I am proud of my clothing. Those are so important to me. We have different dress for marriage. For an example, I am from.
Festivals in China and America 外文学院2001级3班 郑晓韵 NO.010214321 Festivals are days or time of religious or other celebrations. Although some festivals are shared and celebrated in many countries all over the world, how people celebrate them and what people do during the festivals are usually.
Photography, Photo Essays . and Art To submit works of photography or art, simply attach the high resolution image file(s) to your submission form and supply a brief introduction/caption within the Cover Letter section, along with your biographical statement. Photo essay submissions should be contained.
propose to do so by mean of reading culture. Reading culture can help to sharpen considerably our perspective on reading culture generally-including our comtemporary technological driven one Besides that, our life become modern than before. The appearance of many appliances technology make people becoming.
last August, I was at a Buwan ng Wika, Linggo ng Wika and an Araw ng Wika. This is the first time I’ve actually taken part and been to an English Festival . Which is good because the speech I’ve prepared today is actually in English. Globalization has brought to the fore the need for an international.
Matthew Hull Ruth Mueller English 101 June 13, 2013 Profile Essay People cannot function without caffeine; this is a fact of life. When you are walking by the Ragged Edge Coffee House in Gettysburg you tend to find yourself drawn in as if pulled by a magnet. The Ragged Edge Coffee House.
admissions essay . Our team of professional admissions essay writers have the creative experience necessary to take your applications to the next level. As college graduates, each writer is aware of the demands placed on each prospective applicant. By taking a personal approach on every essay we write.
hair. Similarly, “My First Conk” is an essay by Malcolm X where he wrote about the steps and awful experience while he was conking his hair. At that time, black people were inferior to white that’s why he conks his hair just to fit in that society. In his essay . he is emphasizing that people should accept.
India organised The World Book Fair at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. As I am very fond of books, I with my friends decided to visit and watch this mega festival . The entry was free for the students. Hence, we went to the Book Fair on the very first day. The book fair was indeed a spectacle to watch. There.
the music festival market in UK is remarkable in its size and breadth, with over 600 events held each year (Anderton, C). Meanwhile, the overall commercialization of these UK music festivals in resent years is considerable. Finkel (2010, p. 237) argues that the “degree to which an arts festival is commercialized.
Girls are hard workers, mature individuals, and more aware than any boy has. from http://www.studymode.com/essays /Girls-Are-Better-Than-Boys-873542.html. Girls Are Better Than Boys Free Essays 1 - 20 www.studymode.com/subjects/girls-are-better-than-boys-page1.html At key stage 1 to 3 girls.
time in my childhood was every year's Spring Festival . Spring Festival may be China's most important event in a year. Chinese tradition don't follow the Generation calender, so guessing the date of Spring Festival becomes my fun. Before the New Year's Eve, family.
ENG101 November 11, 2014 Descriptive Essay Beloved Vietnam China has its wall, Egypt has its pyramids, and Italy has its colosseum. What do these have in common? They’re all considered, by society, to be some of the greatest wonders of the world. These sites are the bodies of vacation decision.
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literature, Greek unique style of architecture, mysterious myth, and scientific progress are always worth our admiration. Besides, the grand sports festival “Olympic Games” originated in Greece. In this essay . I will give a full explanation to the Greek arts, literature, history, lifestyle and politics.
Essay on Indian Festivals India is a country of colours and festivals . It is said that there are seven days in a week but nine festivals . They mark the grand, gay and happy occasions in the life of Indian people. These are celebrated with gay abandon. Great preparations are made well in advance to observe.
India as A state of snake charmers. But, still the programme which was intended to show the power of India was showing pasts of India. Is it really our culture? Culture is not something which is a fixed for any region. The nature of Indian culture before Aryans came here was different than after that.
NATIONAL OFFICER ACADEMY ISLAMABAD Important Essays Outlines Democracy in Pakistan The appraisal of last 60 years of democracy 1. 2. 3. 4. Where does Pakistan stand in terms of democracy? Is the democracy – an issue of Pakistan or all Muslim countries? Is the democracy an issue of Pakistan.
Essays on Rakhi Feel the spirit of Raksha Bandhan festival with these beautiful essays on Rakhi contributed by our visitors! You may also exhibit love for your sibling by sending reflections on Raksha Bandhan festival or a short paragraph on Rakhi. Your essay on Raksha Bandhan will be posted on this.
India is a city of FAIRS AND festivals but imagine if there were no festivals what would happen? I know a life without these amazing festivals would become like hell. Firstly we would have no holidays and secondly no celebrations .and as we all know a normal routine life is really boring .following.
The Tourism In Mauritius Tourism Essay This part of the theoretical discussion gives an overview of Mauritius as a tourist destination. A general introduction to the cultural and geographical background with a description of tourism characteristics, attractions, as well as seasonal aspects is presented.
friends. First we arrived in Mendoza, where we stayed for only one day. Our next destination was Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. But we didn't want to get there by bus, because we were trying to save some money for our outgoings. So, we went to Buenos Aires by hitchhiking. There were very.
further opportunities in additional lives. In Christianity life is set on a linear time passage that is not cyclic. Richard Gurther believes in his essay Resurrection that there is a birth, trials, challenges, death, sleep for an indeterminate duration, then the resurrection, and judgement, followed by.
EF_Team5 Moderator Threads: - Posts: 2702 Joined: Apr 22, 08 Joanyee Edited by: Joanyee Nov 11, 08, 05:33pm #5 ood Evening, i've done my essay but i'm not too sure whether did i meet the requirement of the question. I'm not too sure on how to evaluate how i work and learn base on the theories.
Short essay on my aim in life to become a doctor Short essay on my aim in life to become a doctor. Short essay on my aim in life to become a doctor All PDF An essay on my aim in life. Essay W riting Service W ebsites Free essay writing in english my aim in life composition. Short Essay on My Aim.
shared that her mom sheltered her, her brother, and her sister from friends and families due to some bad influences. She had never been to a Hmong festival or even a family gathering and she doesn’t know many Hmong words to even speak the language. Being Hmong myself and growing up in a family of eleven.
Maine Lobster Festival ” the illustrative foundation for David Foster Wallace’s essay . “Consider the Lobster”. Wallace is able to accurately depict for the reader, an immense celebration of people relishing in the festivities of the annual Maine Lobster Festival in Penobscot Bay. The festival itself is best.
write a long essay …It is one of your biggest concerns right now, since you got a task and have absolutely no idea how to complete it. What does a long essay actually mean? How long should it be? Am I supposed to write long paragraphs in my essay . What topics are usually covered in long essays . You may.
The Qingming (Pure Brightness) Festival is one of the 24 seasonal division points in China, falling on April 4-6 each year. After the festival . the temperature will rise up and rainfall increases. It is the high time for spring plowing and sowing. But the Qingming Festival is not only a seasonal point.
Academic Essays Format. format. format is what High school english teachers preached to all high schoolers. We came to know of several different formats for different types of essays . We were graded on how close we could keep to the format and how well we followed the prompt. We were never taught.
system over time, you start to realize that the decisions our grandparents made about how to farm the land continue to affect agricultural practice today; and the economic policies we endorse today will have an impact on urban poverty when our children are adults. The concept of sustainable development.
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050 PAPER THREE PROFILE ESSAY TO purchase this tutorial visit following link: http://wiseamerican.us/product/eng-050-paper-three-profile-essay / Contact us at: SUPPORT@WISEAMERICAN.US ENG 050 Week 5 – Paper Three: Profile Essay Paper Three: Profile Essay Task: Write an essay discussing what you consider.
Short Essay for School Students on Indian Festivals A festival is an occasion of enjoyment and celebration. It brings gaiety and mirth thereby strengthening our bond of relationship and friendship. These festivals also promote social interaction and harmony. All nations have their religious and.
Developmental Process of Premature and Late Adolescence Essay Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser https://hwguiders.com/downloads/aed-202-week-9-final-developmental-process-premature-late-adolescence-essay / For More Courses and Exams use this form ( http://hwguiders.
protozoa’s to conscious and cognitive humanoids appears to have been a slow and torturous progression, which has cold heartedly consumed countless of our ancestors. We create replicas of ourselves in the biological sense (children) at an average rate of 400 000 per day according to the website ‘Worldometers’.
Tous les villageois célèbrent ensemble des festivals comme holi et dipawali. Nous résolvons collectivement les conflits sociaux au sein du village selon.
FlaSher For Deepawali s.c. dwivedi currents. In brief, the bulb and the LEDs flash alternately depending on the frequency of IC1. Flashing rates of the
18th Oct. to 31st Oct. 2009 6 INVESTMENT DIPAWALI ISSUE Smart Super Duper Hindustan Dorr Oliver (Rs. 138.00) (Code 509627). - Inves-tors intends to invest in the.
- 3 - Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board AMBIENT NOISE LEVEL MONITORING DURING DIPAWALI. 2007 Noise Level [ dB(A)Leq ] City Monitoring Place Area/
Diwali_Overall Flyer Created Date: 9/3/2014 5:13:35 PM.
Simple Dipawali Lakshmi Puja Puja Items (all items available in local grocery stores) Kumkum Powder 1 spoon Turmeric Haldi 1 spoon Chandan Powder
1 POSTER WRITING A poster is meant to convey some important information to a large number of people. It is a means of advertising or publicising something on a large.
How to perform Lakshmi Maata Puja for Divali Prepared by The Swaha Dharma Sansad under the guidance of the Paramacharya of Swaha, Pt. Hardeo Persad
Federation of Indian Communities of Queensland (FICQ) In association with BRISBANE CITY COUNCIL Supported by: QUEESNSLAND GOVERNMENT DIPAWALI
The World Renewal, October 2013 9 D eepavali or Diwali, popularly known as the ?festival of lights. is a five-day Hindu festival which starts on Dhanteras.
http://www.omshantivideo.com/WorlRenewal/13WROct/WR OCT2013- Dipawali-celebration 04.pdf
thoda bhi dukh na ho happy bollywood diwali? subha dipawali may goddess lakshmi drive away darkness and spread brightness all around yoy on this diwaki and always?
Dipawali is the most significant Hindu festival. Celebrate Diwali along with some. easy navratri puja vidhi | how to do ghata sthapana. www.youtube.com/watch?v=.
Deepawali Essay,Essay on Dipawali Festival,Paragraph on. www.diwalifestival.org/diwali-essays1.html Diwali Essay, Essay on Diwali Festival.
ALOK VIDYASHRAM DASHAIN AND DIPAWALI HOLIDAY HOMEWORK 2013-14 2. Major factors of changing structure of Natural Resources and Cultural Heritage
Lesson Plan by Nita Sharma Yajnik Theme: Let?s Go To India Lesson Title or Topic: Diwali, an Indian Festival. Shubh Dipawali shubh diipaavalii
ON THIS AUSPICIOUS OCCASION OF SHUBH DIPAWALI || Jagatkaranam Karanam Gyan Roopam; Suradhim Sukhadim Gunesham Ganesham; Jagatvyapinam.
th DIWALI MESSAGE FROM universes to every jewel. Connect to a wave of of variety of brilliant jewels, Sarv karya karini,mam manorath purni, Namastasye namastasye.
X X diwali - the season of festivals X The most important Hindu festival, festival of lights. Dipawali is commonly called by its short-ened name. Diwali.
ஐப்பசி 23 ஞாயி 9.11.2014 அதிகாைல தல் நாள் வம் அைனத் சுபங்கள் ெசய்ய நன்
1 dhote bandhu science college, gondia time table during dipawali vacation, sundays & holidays for b.sc. i, ii & iii (maths & bio group) (2009-2010)
http://www.ccss.org/Resources/Documents/3Rs Teaching about Diwali.pdf
MADHYA PRADESH POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD e /;izns'k izn w'k.k fu;a= .k cksM Z Paryawaran Parisar, E-5, Arera Colony, Bhopal - 462 016 (M.P.) i;kZo j.k ifjlj] bZ& 5].
Hindi and Dipawali in Nepali. But, in South and East Indian languages, the word did not
Multicultural Rotorua Newsletter /Bulletin April 2013 Dipawali Celebration. Saturday 9th November. 8pm. The BoP (Rotorua) Indian Association will celebrate Dipawali.
Divine Life Society Barcelona- Branch (Swami Sivananda Vedanta Sadhana Mandir) C/ Cadí 19, bajos 2ª 08031 Barcelona (Spain) 0034 607 85 44 10
interview of people for diwali .pdf FREE PDF DOWNLOAD NOW. Source #2. Dipawali is the most significant Hindu festival. Celebrate Diwali along with some.
LOHANA COMMUNITY NORTH LONDON FAMILY GUIDANCE SUB-COMMITTEE Please register and receive matrimonial information. For further information please.
http://www.lcnl.org/LCNL Newsletter August 2005.pdf
Inhoud. p. 1 Happy Dipawali | Kerstkaarten 2013 p. 2 CSF veldwerkers op huisbezoek | Rupesh p. 3 Rupsje nooitgenoeg Onder p. 4 de Mayareis een
Try to celebrate Eco-Friendly Dipawali. Happy Diwali & A Prosperous New Year. From. Principal (Shree Ambe Vidyalaya) Title: Untitled-1 Author: adms Created Date:
http://ambevidyalaya.org/Upload/Notice/Massege from principal.pdf
AN ISO 9001 COMPANY Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Wishing a Happy Dipawali & a Prosperous new Year. Technical Report Stock Name: Manappuram Gen Fin CMP: 167.60 Target: 195 Having been listed in the bourses in June
Title: Automatically generated PDF from existing images. Author: bkadmin Subject: Images converted to PDF format. Keywords: MRV64.jpg, MRV641.jpg, MRV642.jpg.
The one word that spells our success. 2/32 MINDA TIMES | Vol 4 Issue 3 | July - Sept. 2009 INDEX Contents From the Editor s Desk MMSL.
1iTRc1 1,c cte'1 1i1I^ss Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited FAX FROM. ADDL. GENERAL MANAGER (HR) BHEL, CORPORATE OFFICE, NEW DELHI FOR. HEAD OF HR /.
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Diwali o Dipawali significa ?una hilera de luces. Se conmemora el retorno del Señor
Oiland NaturalGasCorporation Lim.ited Western O«Skoce. 'Dipawali 'falTson5. <1.2010. -' J.:', / r-
JL.k (DevbratJhi). Chief Manager (HRHfc IR. '. '
T he Committee for Capacity Building of CA Firms and Small & Medium Practitioners is a non-standing Committee of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
11 Nov. 15 Wednesday Dipawali 12 Nov. 15 Thursday Gobardhan Pooja 13 Nov. 15 Friday Bhai-Dooj/Chitagupta Jayanti 24 Nov. 15.
Kali Puja Vidhi .pdf DOWNLOAD HERE 1 / 2. http://www.pdfsdocuments.com/out.php?q=Kali+Puja+Vidhi. Simple Dipawali.
Dipawali is the festival of lights and is known across the world as a symbol of victory over good, light over darkness and knowledge over ignorance.
Contents April 1, 2011 - Hindi Lesson No. 88 eighty eight: हिं ी ा िंख् ा ८८ Hindi(Paath sankhya atthasee) अठा ी ब्ा ी-.
market for the birds on day to day basis except during festive season like Christmas, Dipawali etc. 5. Package of Management practices. The package of common.
Dipawali 3rd November 2013 New Year Eve 31st December 2013 Re1/SMS Rs 1.5/SMS Rs5/SMS 180 days 180 days per second Call Charges(base rate) 11 For first 30 days.
11.11.2015 Wednesday Dipawali 17.11.2015 Tuesday Chatt Puja 25.11.2015 Wednesday Guru Nanak Jayanti. HOLIDAY LIST FOR THE YEAR 2015. sq--à-4 sq-.
families Happy Dipawali. N.N. Sinha Chairman From The Chairman’s Desk:…. From The Chairman’s Desk:…. JHARKHAND STATE MINERAL DEVELOPMENT …
MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SC?NCES, NASHK (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified University) Dindori Road, Mhasrul, Nashik-422004 Tel. (0253) 2539175, Fax.
ROLE OF ECGC AND EXIM BANK Export Credit Guarantee Corporation. WISH YOU A HAPPY DURGA PUJA, DUSSEHRA, AND DIPAWALI. AND ALL GOOD LUCK.
in suo onore, da qui il nome Dipawali o più semplicemente Diwali. La serata sarà preceduta nel pomeriggio da due classi di tecnica e repertorio.
Dipawali ?3rd Nov 13Dipawali Dipawali New Year Eve ?31st Dec 13New Year Eve New Year Eve India One 249 Plan India One 299 Plan India One 449 Plan
Dipawali (Bhaiduj) Date 01/01/2013 04/11/2013 05/11/2013 Day Tuesday Monday Tuesday SHR Additional Technkal Capacity to Department of Health & Family Welfare.
http://www.shsrc.org/Downloads/Holiday List of Year - 2013.pdf
Music Of India Essay, Research Paper
The music of India is a mosaic of different genres and levels of sophistication. At one extreme, classical music is performed in the urban concert halls for purely artistic reasons, and at the other, many kinds of functional rural music accompany life-cycle and agricultural rites. In between are many other musical genres of different regions of the country, reflecting the diversity of its peoples. The origins of classical music can be traced to the Natya Shastra, a Sanskrit treatise on drama, which encompasses music as well. Two classical traditions are now recognized; Hindustani in north India and Carnatic (or Karnatak) in the south. Both traditions have inspiration from the bhakti (”devotional”) movements modified by the princely courts. The two traditions share basic musical features but differ in many details, so that followers of one often find the other not pleasing. Both systems consist of un-harmonized melody; a drone (one or more notes sustained against a melody); and the melody line, which may either be composed in advance or improvised. It based on one of several hundred traditional melody matrices called raga. These consist of scales, ascending and descending movements, strong and weak notes, and characteristic phrases. Emotional connotations of individual ragas, associating them with moods, performance times, colors, deities, and so on are great influences on the ragas. A raga can be performed both in free time and in measured time. In free time, the melodic features of a raga are explored gradually in their natural rhythm or flow. In measured time, one of several possible measures, called talas, is used. A tala consists of a repeating number of time units that form a cyclical pattern; within this cycle, specific points receive different degrees of stress. Tala thus involves both a numeric element and an accent or stress element. Many complex talas exist, but those ranging from 6 to 16 units are most common.
In the Hindustani khyal, a vocal concert found in north India today, the composition is generally considered an improvisational concert; normally a lengthy section is performed in a time measure so extremely slow.
Both Hindustani and Carnatic traditions also have vocal forms derived from dance and considered lighter in character. These forms, with their dance-rooted rhythms, are performed at the close of concerts. In the Carnatic system, instrumental music is based on vocal forms. The majority of Hindustani music, in contrast, is a specifically instrumental composition based on the plucking patterns of stringed instruments, especially the sitar.
The Sarangi is the premier bowed instrument of North Indian music. It began to become popluar in the mid-17th century to accompany vocal music. It still retains this vital role today. The Sarangi consists of truncated body. Like the Sarode it has a sound board of goat skin. It has three main playing strings of heavy gut. These are the ones which are bowed. It also has an addition of thirty to forty metal strings, which give the instrument it characteristic sound. Unlike the violin, in which the strings are pressed down on a fingerboard, the playing strings of the sarangi are stopped with fingernails of the left hand. Probably the best-known North Indian instrument is the Sitar. It is a long necked lute with twenty curved metal frets. It is plucked by the index finger of the left hand. Sitars generally have six or seven main playing strings which run above the frets, and an additional twelve or more strings, which give the instrument an shimmering echo when played. The bridge of the Sitar, which is rectangular, gives the instrument its characteristic sound. The Sarode is a fretless lute, with a fingerboard faced with metal. It has a soundtable of goat skin. The Sarode has generally eight to ten main playing strings and eleven to sixteen strings. It is plucked with a pick made ofcoconut shell. It is shorter than the Sitar in length and has a clearer, rounder tone. The sarode is capable of both long slides and fast percussive phrases. The Santur is the relative of the hammered dulcimer of Europe. Stories of a shatatantri vina, or one hundred string Vina, of the ancient past are widely recorded. However, the origins of this instrument are still shroud in mystery. The Santur consists of a finely finished trapezium shaped box, with metal strings run across the top. The strings are usually grouped in three strings per note, called courses. Each of the courses are surported by a small wooden bridge, which alternate on either side of the top. Each course is sounded by striking it with a pair of light wooden mallets. It has been used for over one thousand years. The Tabla is the principal drum, of North Indian music. It is actually a pair of drums played with fingers and wrists of both hands. The right hand, smaller, high-pitched drum is called Tabla, and the left hand one, the Bayan or Dagga. The set is able to produce a wide range of different pitches and tone colors. The Bayan in particularly is reconizable for it low and colorful pitch effects.
The instruments of Indian classical music fall into two main categories: those that carry the main melody and those that accompany. Of the many other melodic instruments, the most prominent are the plucked lutes, sitar and sarod in the north and vina in the south; the transverse flute ba?sri; and the double reeds shahnai and nagasvaram. Accompanying instruments serve three functions: to provide a drone, to provide a secondary melody, and to keep time and give rhythmic support. For the drone the most common instrument is the long-necked lute, tambura. In the south, the Western violin is used to provide a secondary melody; as well as the bowed lute sarangi and the hand-pumped keyboard harmonium in the north. To keep time and provide rhythmic support the Carnatic system uses the double-ended drum mridangam, the small frame drum kanjira, and the earthen pot ghatam. The Hindustani system generally employs the pair of kettle drums called tabla and occasionally the double-ended drum pakhavaja.
Eighty percent of India’s population still lives in villages, and although change is noticeable, many old traditions remain. Except in the tribal areas, men and women are usually segregated in song. Women’s songs, often unaccompanied, are sung at weddings, childbirths, festivals, and during agricultural and household activities. Men’s songs, often accompanied at least by percussion instruments, are connected with devotional practices, particular festivals, and work. In most regions specialist musicians perform for ritual, devotional, didactic, and entertainment purposes. These specialists include priests, religious mendicants, entertainers, storytellers, and theatrical troupes. The role of the village entertainer has died off in many parts of India by the spread of films, which have developed their own forms of music influenced both by traditional Indian and Western music. Classical music, however, remains largely free of these influences.