All the twelve great economists had great contributions to economics and they all showed great enthusiasm in studying economics. There were some differences between their concepts of economics, but all of these concepts built up the basic ideas of the economics we studied today.
There were several criterion employed in ranking the economists.
First of all, the economist should have great influences in economics. He / she should have substantial theories which could be applied in the real world and could be used as reference to other economists.
Then he / she should enjoy his / her works in finding theories or developing his / her own ideas, he / she should show enthusiasm in studying economics. If he / she could enjoy his / her works, he / she would concentrate in the process of defining the theories and ideas and would give better results. Hence, meaningful and great economics theories would be formed.
Third, he / she should dedicate to spread the ideas of economics so that all people could receive the concepts of economics and hence improve the economy in the world.
Spreading the economics ideas was very important, other could make changes to his / her concepts and correct them.
Finally, he / she should have contributions to the society. It was very important for the economist to consider the public benefits when creating his / her own ideas which might have great influence to the society. As economics relates the allocation of resources in the world, the economics theories created might affect the wealth distribution in the world.
Among the twelve great economists discussed in this course, I would rank Alfred Marshall the first and Lerner Abba Potachya the second.
In my point of view, Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) who was the first economist I learned in this course, was the greatest economist among the twelve. He was just like the father of economics. He contributed most of his life in economics.
When he started teaching political economics at St John’s College, he was committed his career to developing this subject and helping to transform it into a new science of economics. He spent several years in developing and defining his economics ideas and deepening his understandings. He also visited the USA to probe economic conditions, and throughout his life he was tireless in his efforts to master the practicalities of the economic world. It seems that most of his life was surrounded by economics. He has tried his effort to investigate economics and build up his own ideas of economics. His spirit of studying economics was admirable.
Being the professor, although able students interested in economics were in short supply, Marshall did teach and influence several students who were to make contributions to economics. He was patient to spread the ideas of economics to other and successfully influenced other to become great economists. The more economists in the world, the better the economics theories would be formed. A.C. Pigou and J.M. Keynes were the great economists who were the pupils of Marshall. His pupils followed his ideas and developed their own concepts or even improve Marshall’s ideas. A.C. Pigou was one of the great economists we studied, most of his theories have combined with Marshall’s and even used to compare with Marshall’s. This could enhance the theories of economics and hence benefit to the whole economy.
Marshall published the first standard textbook in economics (Principles of Economics) which was the most influential treatise in economics and have many important concepts. This book went through eight editions in his lifetime. It showed that he improved his concepts continually and shouldered the responsibility in spreading the best ideas of economics to the public.
Although most of the Marshall’s concepts were incomplete and sketchy, they also gave general ideas to the latter economists. So, Marshall’s conceptions of economics were the foundation of other concepts.
Marshall saw economics as concerned with those aspects of human behaviour open to pecuniary influences and sufficientty regular and ubiquitous to permit statements of broad scope and some persistence. When we study economics nowadays, we also need to concern about the human desires. We have to find out solutions to solve the different human desires problems.
The conception of competition in Marshall's manufacturing case is closer to the ideas of imperfect or monopolistic competition. When we study microeconomics, we will learn about the types of competitions in the industry. Marshall gave his own ideas in the trend of industry shifting from one state to another.(e.g. An industry would pass to monopoly if other firms’ products were highly substitutable.) This concept is still acceptable. This shows that Marshall’s ideas were far reaching.
Marshall's major contribution to international trade theory was his well-known geometrical analysis of the equilibrium and stability of two-country trade by means of intersecting offer curves. Today, we use demand and supply curves to analyse the activities in the market. Without any doubt, the geometrical analysis is very useful in studying economics. It gives clear analysis and explains the phenomenon of the market logically by showing the relationship of curves.
Marshall had great contributions of economics in his life, he not only met the criterion I set above but also made me realize that studying economics is important to the society and it is a long route to achieve.
Lerner Abba Potachya (1905-1982) was chosen as the second as he also had great contributions to economics and had great influence to other economists.
Most of the economists were mathematical economists. Having the knowledge of mathematics was useful to economists to think logically and solve some economics problems (e.g. “demand and supply” requires some techniques in mathematics.). However, Lerner was one of the great non-mathematical economists, he was a lifelong socialist. Without some mathematical knowledge, he could still create his own ideas of economics and even tidy up and clarify other ideas. After his clarifications, most of the ideas became more important and useful than before. For example, Lerner wrote article to make Keynes’s employment theory simple and generally intelligible. His efforts in improving and clarifying other ideas could let other understand the general concepts of economics easily for study.
Although he only had great ambition in improving economy, he had many meaningful economic theories. His innovations in microeconomics (The general ideas of macroeconomic of Lerner was mainly related to the government and employment in society, it was subjected to the rules for maintaining prosperity.) and international trade theory were very useful which became an integral parts of every economists standard equipments. It seems that he not only provided useful ideas for other to think logically but also give general rule to maintain the prosperity in society. That why he was a successful economist in the world.
Lerner’s “The Economics of Control” became and remained the most comprehensive non-mathematical text on welfare economics, which was written for the planners and administrations of a decentralized socialist economy. It was acted as rules for the optimal allocation of resources. This rule was important for the distribution of resources in socialist economy so as to prevent unfairness.
Lerner was one of the founders of the theory of the market pricing in the decentralized socialist economy (Lange-Lerner Theorem). He showed that a decentralized socialist economy was possible for ideal resources allocation to be achieved through a price system. This made the comparison between capitalism and socialism meaningful and equally efficient. It helped to improve the relationship between different market systems.
In my opinion, compared with Pigou’s analysis of macroeconomics of unemployment, the ideas given by Lerner was more reliable. Pigou suggested that aggregate unemployment could be cured by cutting money wages while Lerner suggested that if there was not enough spending by the government, there was excessive unemployment. In real case, there is minimum wage applied in some societies so as to protect the workers. This indicates that unemployment rate related to the wages. The higher the salary, the lower the unemployment rate. Hence Lerner idea was more reasonable as it is a well-known fact that if the government spends on infrastructure, the unemployment rate will decrease. So Lerner’s idea matched more to the reality.
To sum up, all the twelve economists have their contributions to economics, otherwise their histories and ideas would not be learnt by us. Alfred Marshall and Lerner Abba Potachya are the two great economists impressed me most.How to Cite this Page
"Evaluation of Economists." 123HelpMe.com. 04 Aug 2016
These have been extracted by Dr. Kay Strong from her students' work and are provided as an appendix to her case study, "Use of Portfolios for Assessment in Introductory Economics" .From the portfolio of AMF: My Reflective Essay:
Economics is the study of how people interact with their environment to provide material (goods and services) that we need and want. This was one of the very first things that I have in my notes from the start of this class in August. My newly un refined definition is the study of how the decisions we make determine the consequence of how the entire world's energy and resources are divided up in order to make the whole world flow. Whether that decision is to start a business or look for a job, get married, buy a new sweater, or make a phone call, everything we do has a dollar amount attached to it. Gained or lost, money is the bottom line for many of our life's decisions.
Prior to this class, I assumed economics was for the people in dress suits on Wall Street. I never cared much to learn about unemployment rates, for example, because that was something that never affected me. Now, I realize that I couldn't have been more wrong. Many times, since I have been hired, people have been laid off at my factory, and it always occurs around January. This is because many of the factories that we supply close down for a few weeks to a month due to the slowdown in car sales. What happens prior to January that makes such a drastic dent in wallets every year? Could it be the holiday season sucks everyone dry and it takes awhile consumers to get back on their feet? It could be one factor. Layoffs are already planned for some plants that we support, and a slow down in overtime is forecasted for our plant.
I now pay more attention to economic reports that I see on the news or in the papers because I understand the basic concepts that they are talking about. I don't just hop right to the comics anymore, and I actually flip through the Money and Business sections! I feel that it has expanded my knowledge base to be able to speak more intelligently about economic topics when they come up in conversation. I play the devil's advocate with people to see if they can notice the whole picture of a news story instead of just seeing it as one person in small town USA.
I also feel that this class has opened my mind to new possibilities. Realizing that what might be great in the here and now might be bad for the long run. For example, the wonderful tax money that we got back last year. Sure it was great to have an extra $300, but in the long run it did not really have the affect on the economy that it was planned to have. Worse, the government is now facing quite a large deficit and could have used that money in the fight over sees.
I had no idea of how much information the web can really provide for you if you look for it! I must admit that I used to get online check my email and then get offline again. I never really surfed the web as much as I have in the last few months. I have learned a great deal and have even passed on some information to people at work and family. So many interesting facts are out there if you just look for them. Unless you research both sides of a story you may never come up with how you really feel about a topic.
I feel that my writing and vocabulary skills have been sharpened. Working in a factory you tend to use poor speech, and very rarely do you pick up a pencil to write anything but your name. This class gave me an avenue to be creative and use my brain to think in ways I usually don't have to think. Even in my other classes I could easily memorize data and information for exams that is just as easily forgotten. In this class we were challenged to apply the data to our every day lives making it a part of who you are. This kind of learning is a lot harder to forget.From the portfolio of DMK: Reflective Essay:
There is an enigma to the study of economics: while it seems simplistic in design, weighing costs and benefits to find solutions to macro-level problems, economics is also very personal. This was a great surprise I found in this class.
Consider poverty and public assistance, an issue many disagree on. While government websites can spew out statistics and policy solutions, and textbooks can define the reasons behind poverty and draw nice curves showing the distribution of income in various nations, it still comes down to people and families. What possibilities await one family who can be lifted from impoverished conditions, and what possibilities await a country whose future livelihood depends in part on the children within that impoverished family? Federal and state budgets are another conflicting matter: what child will go to class hungry when government cuts school breakfast programs, or whose car will need tire replacements when budgets fail to appropriate enough to maintain roads? Can we really put a price on a child’s life for the issuance of airbags in cars, and who will determine the price tag, the parent or someone sitting behind a desk at an insurance company? Individuals are grossly affected by studies in economics.
To examine policy at a macro-level can be awesome: the natural balances found in such things as wage equilibriums and how many pizzas Dominos should be making, appears to be as forceful as any natural occurrence. To make policy at a macro-level, on the other hand, must be some sort of hell reserved for politicians: knowing that every dollar one appropriates, every trade treaty one signs, and every pre-decided maximum penalty for crimes committed can have an enormous impact on just one individual is a terrible responsibility. It is an awesome power, and not one that lets people sleep peacefully at night.
I am yet undecided whether I enjoyed this class. If ignorance is bliss then I am in agony, for I might have received less of a fright watching old “Tales from the Crypt” reruns. Happy or not, my appreciation for the study of economics has grown considerably, as I used to believe it was a subject found only in the business section of newspapers, rather than a tool used in many areas of life. Criminal activity, for example, is moral issue, but one that finds its roots in cost/ benefit analysis, for if we raised the costs would the activity be deemed profitable? Or on the flipside, if we pull the morality out of the equation, what would the benefits be? Policy isn’t always about money spent and results from that spending, but can also be where we as a society, at a given time, desire control over certain behaviors.
One of the greatest conclusions I have come to, in completing this class, is that government is not always a good thing. Yes, it serves some purpose and offers some services that would not else be available, but the costs to which government extracts for their services is far too high. As noted previously, policy making is an awesome power, blend that idea of power with billions of dollars, a tablespoon of moral ideals and a pinch of elitism and policy makers start believing they’re playing God. Theological arguments aside, there are two main difference: One, God knows His outcomes before His actions—Government does not have that ability, and never will; two, when Government intervenes, their actions typically produce some unintended results. Government makes too many value-based judgments, although ideas of value are often defined by us, the voters. It is not good economic policy to spend tax dollars to save family farms, but we do because we find security in memories of summers at Grandpa’s farm and gawking at ponies at a roadside fence during Sunday afternoon trips. It is not good economic policy to levy high taxes on imported steel, yet we do because we uphold American union organizations as a great pastime, second only to baseball. Morals and ideas of value do not mesh with economics, yet Government tries to blend the two.
With that idea arises a new question: whose perspective should be followed in regards to policy making? From Governmental economic advisors, to steel workers, to welfare recipients, there are far too many sides of an issue to find compromises, and people’s perspectives are far too unstable. When I take off my Student Hat, and place on my head my Church Hat, there is an innate pro-life perspective, even though my Student Hat tells me that the costs of illegalizing abortion is far greater than any personal benefit I might extract from such policy. When a worker in Washington takes off their Government Hat and visits an elderly Aunt in a nursing home, their perspective on the costs of Medicaid and Social Security might be minimized when they see first-hand the benefits of these programs. If one person cannot always decide whether the costs of a societal issue outweigh the benefits one reaps from it, how on earth can 535 Congressional members plus an Executive office-holder do so?
Finding solutions and analyzing information in print can be an enormous task itself with all the data we have ready for viewing on the Internet. However, too much of this information is contradictory, and even within Government sites there are discrepancies that must be hunted down, such as the spending of the Social Security surplus for 2003 and a true figure on what war with Iraq might cost. Furthermore, the dollar figures in Government spending are simply too high to fathom: visualizing a trillion dollars is like staring at an abstract painting, you can look at it, but you cannot always see the form and structure it takes.
Economics shouldn’t be abstract, but a simple study of resources and the best possible way to use them. However, first it must be decided when it is best to allow markets to find their own natural equilibriums and when it is best to ask for Government intervention.
When you are asked to write about a reflective essay, in most cases it is obvious that the teacher will ask you to write about a particular title. Teachers who choose to do this often intend to make sure that all the students are writing about the same thing. This helps them see the difference in the reasoning of the class, how different students think better than others and so forth. It is supposed to bring forth some sense of uniformity in the thought process of the class, so that the teacher is able to know which student are already ahead of the curve and which students need more help to get them at par with the others.
There are however cases where the teacher will not ask students to work on a given title, but instead they will ask the students to select their own topic and work on it. This might be a bit easy for you in the sense that you get to choose what you want to write on, and you get to deliver the same to your teacher.
However, in as much as this might sound so easy for you, it is important that you realize this is not what the teachers are looking for. When this happens they are looking for something more than what you already know, or what you are thinking. They are looking to see how well you can come up with a strong topic. They are looking to see how good you are at an analytical point of view. The importance of the title that you choose to your paper is immense, and it is for the same reason that we have chosen some herein so that you have an easier task of learning how to do the same through the following examples:
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When you are writing a reflective essay, you will need to examine your past experiences. So, if you are writing one on communication, you will want to reflect on how well you communicate with others. You would want to let your instructor know about how well a lecture or lesson relating to communication has helped you understand how you communicate the best with others. Relate direct information from class to your paper to show what you have learned. There are some great ways to accomplish this assignment. Here is a step-by-step guide to writing a reflective essay on communication and what you have learned about how you communicate.
Go through your text book and jot down some of the communication techniques, theories, or concepts that relate to you and how you communicate with others. The number of these that you should write down would ultimately depend on how long your paper has to be. Try to focus on three at the least.
Use this list to brainstorm some specific examples for each one of the concepts on your list. Think about how you used that type of communication or how the concept applied to a situation that you were in.
The next step would be to plan your paper out. An outline is the backbone of your paper. You will put all of the key ideas in order that you want to talk about in your paper.
It is best to add any transitional phrases to the outline instead of adding them in the draft. That way you will be able to link main ideas and not sub topics.
You will use your outline to create a rough draft. Make sure to have an introduction, body, and conclusion. Each supporting detail should be explained in the body paragraphs in its own paragraph. Be sure to add evidence from a credible source to support your reasons and then also explain them to your reader.
When you finish writing that conclusion, many students think that they are done. You may hit the review button and fix the problems that it catches and just save it and go. This is a bad habit. You need to read it through carefully several times to make sure that it is error free before handing it in.Easy Tricks
To Set the Darkness Echoing: A Reflective Self-Assessment
Before I begin reflecting on specific events from this semester’s coursework in English 600, I’d like to reflect in a more general way on the act and art of writing. When I sit down to write a reflective essay, I feel that I face a host of concerns unique to this type of writing. Of course, some of the concerns I face in writing a reflective piece also come up in other types of writing that I am more experienced and comfortable with, poetry for instance. In fact, the similarities between the reflective self-assessment and the poem put me in mind of a piece by Seamus Heaney. that will serve, I think, to elucidate not only some of my thoughts on creative writing, but also the act of writing in general. In the poem “Personal Helicon ,” Heaney draws a comparison between staring into the dark depths of a well as a child as an act of self reflection, to the act of writing poetry as a parallel act in his adult life that is in some sense a more mature version of his childhood gazing. The last two stanzas of the poem are particularly relevant to this discussion, and they go like this:
Others had echoes, gave back your own call
With a clean new music in it. And one
Was scaresome, for there, out of ferns and tall
Foxgloves, a rat slapped across my reflection.
Now, to pry into roots, to finger slime,
To stare, big-eyed Narcissus, into some spring
Is beneath all adult dignity. I rhyme
To see myself, to set the darkness echoing.
For me, part of the purpose of all writing, be it poetry, fiction, discursive prose, or even the reflective essay, is similar to the purpose Heaney describes in“Personal Helicon.” At the risk of stretching the comparison too far, my reluctance in writing reflective essays is that for me, in the past, this form of writing has been somewhat like the “scaresome” well that Heaney describes in his poem – while poetry has always sent the sound of my own voice back to me with a “clean new music in it.” I feel that whenever I write a reflective piece there is always something ungraceful, even “scaresome” about my writing. And always, in rereading a reflective piece I have written in the past, I cannot help but feel that a “rat” has “slapped across my reflection.” Nevertheless, writing, whatever else it may be – frustrating, aggravating, nerve-wracking – is always, in the end, an enjoyable task for me, and ultimately, I write, “To see myself, to set the darkness echoing.”
Heaney’s poem also serves as a good starting point for this discussion because it depicts writing as a task that one comes to on one’s own, and on one’s own terms. This relates to my experience in English 600 in that the open-ended nature of this course, which at first struck me as a little “scaresome,” allowed me – nay, forced me–to come to the course content and to complete the required work on my own terms. The relatively free-form nature of this course is responsible for the most valuable thing I took away from my first semester of graduate school: the chance to solidify my personal approach toward writing, teaching, and scholarship through articulating this approach to my peers and to the instructor.
For the sake of honesty, I want to back up a little before I begin discussing some of the work I did this semester to talk about my first impressions of English 600. I didn’t immediately embrace, or even really understand the benefits of Dr. Stacey’s open-ended approach. In fact, at the beginning of the semester, I was fairly apprehensive, a little skeptical, and occasionally given to fits of rage about my experience in English 600. It seemed to me at first that I was paying an awful lot of money to be condescended to by a professor I barely knew, and that, while I appreciated his honesty and cynicism about the fate of composition instructors in the University, that my time might be better spent in a more rigorous, or at least a more structured class. Through the course of the semester, however, I was forced to reevaluate my assessment of English 600. What I had initially mistaken for condescension emerged as a benign blend of humor and honesty; what I had initially mistaken for cynicism emerged as a blatantly honest presentation of some pretty grim realities; and what I had mistaken for a lack of rigor emerged as an unprecedented level of intellectual freedom. All in all, Dr. Stacey’s approach to teaching served as a gentle and much needed reminder to have a sense of humor in our professional lives, to not take things too seriously. At any rate, the point is that I got used to things and ultimately enjoyed and benefited from English 600. In fact, the course allowed me to think about my goals and my critical biases in ways that were intellectually challenging and engaging.
The readings in Pope’s English Studies Book were a welcome refresher on significant literary theories, and I was extremely pleased to see that he included a chapter on eclectic and ecocritical approaches. His discussion of various critical approaches got me thinking about the relationship between ecocriticism and other methods. In a brief post on gender studies and feminism, I voice the similarities I see between ecocriticism and gender studies,
Just as gender studies unravels the boy/ girl dichotomy, ecocriticism unravels the human/ nature dichotomy, choosing to regard human beings as part of the natural world, rather than separate from it. This inclusive approach seems in line with the goals of intersectional feminism (especially considering the way suppression of the feminine mirrors suppression of the natural world in the academy).
The similarity I discuss here got me thinking about the scope of eco-criticism compared to other critical approaches, and I returned to an essay called “Widening the Lens” that I wrote as an undergraduate at Humboldt State University for a final project in a senior seminar class. In this piece I assert that ecocriticism includes the widest array of extra-textual factors of any literary theory, and that as such, it is superior to any other literary theory. I may overstate the case a little in this piece, but it’s valuable in that it deals with the idea of one’s “subject position” in an eco-centric worldview. Granted human beings are different from one another, and factors such as race, gender, and socio-economic class affect our lives on a daily basis. Still, human beings share much in common with one another, and all of us share a common “subject position” in that we are all Homo sapiens on the planet earth.
Much of the work I did in English 600 this semester dealt with defining, exploring, and defending an eco-centric approach toward writing, teaching, literature, and English studies in general. I found the Moodle discussion of ecocriticism to be an invaluable opportunity to examine and clarify my ecological approach to teaching, learning, and interpretation. It is important to consider the problems inherent in any theoretical framework, and even more important to examine the assumptions underlying one’s own worldview. In the Moodle post that I have called “Debunking Some Miconceptions …” I found myself expressing with greater clarity than ever before a defense of the validity of an ecocritical approach. The opening sentence of this piece sums up my answer to some common concerns about the possible pitfalls of ecocriticism and ecocomposition, “ Instead of furthering an oppressive and deeply flawed system of eurocentric, patriarchal, anthropocentrism, proponents of Deep Ecology. Bioregionalism, and the better informed ecocritics seek an ecology that is relevant and practical to all.”
The assignment in which we discussed the benefits and potential problems of ecocriticism was, without a doubt, the high point of the class for me. It allowed me to flesh out some of my own ideas, and to broaden my perspective by discussing ecocriticism with my group members. In the piece “Aesthetics, Socio-Economics, and Ecology ,” I summarize this group discussion of ecocriticism. Ecology means different things to different people, and as I mention in this piece, definitions were central to our discussion. By borrowing concepts from Deep Ecology and Bioregionalism, ecology becomes a way of perceiving and being in the world that transcends boundaries of race, gender, and class. The transcendental quality of a “deep” approach to ecology comes partly from what I call “an awesome h umility that comes when one realizes one's smallness in relation to all that is.”
The point I’m making here is that, while I appreciate the “problemitization” of ecocriticism that came up in our discussion, it ultimately served only to reinforce my belief in the value and validity of an ecocentric approach. For one thing, all of the concerns raised about ecocriticism in this discussion were human concerns. Racism, sexism, and socio-economic biases are realities of the human experience, and I do not propose an ecocriticial approach that ignores these significant problems. I do, however, assert that human suffering, caused by oppression and exploitation, is inexorably bound to the abuse and exploitation of the natural world. I would argue, in fact, that human suffering at the hands of other humans is merely an extension of the violent exploitative relationship most humans have to the natural world. It is time that human beings abandon a Cartesian mechanistic world view in favor of an organic, bioregional, deep ecological one that considers the natural world not as dead matter, separate from human beings, but rather as the complex of living systems that comprise it, and to which human beings are inextricably linked. As teachers, we owe it to ourselves and to our students to do everything in our power to help implement this much needed paradigm shift.
Composition and Ecology may seem like strange bedfellows, but I am by no means the first to make the case for the inclusion of ecology in the writing classroom. Encouraging students to think and write about the natural world, and their relationship to it, has born a revolutionary pedagogical approach called ecocomposition. Many books have already been written on the subject of ecocompostition, and the field is burgeoning. English 600 encouraged me to ponder the connection between ecology and the teaching of writing, and as a result, I have formulated an idea for my unbound project for the MATW at Humboldt State University. I see the benefits of ecology in the writing class, and my project, “s eeks to examine the role of place in composition studies, with particular attention to the ways in which awareness of one’s physical location and relationship to one’s environment are instrumental in the development of critical thinking and learning to write .” One benefit of ecocomposition, or place-based pedagogy, is that it naturally encourages – in fact, practically requires – interdisciplinarity and writing across the curriculum. Another benefit is that ecocomposition allows for the inclusion of forms of writing that are not traditionally associated with introductory writing courses – poetry, creative nonfiction, etc.
Ecocriticism and ecocomposition share commonalities, as do the broader fields of literature and composition. I have included on this site some of my own critical literary texts, creative pieces (by myself and others ), and a reflective piece I wrote for an undergraduate final project to demonstrate the variety of writing that an eco-centric approach can yield. As I hope these pieces demonstrate, the possibilities of blending ecology and writing are intriguing and endless and of unquestionable value.