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Hyphomycetes Classification Essay

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Hyphomycetes - definition, etymology and usage, examples and related words

Hyphomycetes Definitions

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary

  • n. pl Hyphomycetes (Bot) One of the great division of fungi, containing those species which have naked spores borne on free or only fasciculate threads.
  • ***

Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

    • hyphomycetes One of the six principal groups into which all fungi have been divided, characterized by having the spores naked, on conspicuous threads. It includes Peronosporeæ, Penicillium, etc. In modern systems of classification the Hyphomycetes are referred to what are called fungi imperfecti, or imperfectly known forms, many of which are known or suspected to be asexnal stages of Ascomycetes. The groups include all fungi composed simply of branched or unbranched hyphæ. Also called filamentous fungi.
    • ***
Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary

NL. fr. Gr. a web +. a mushroom

Usage In literature:

It seems to me that probably numbers 1-4 represent resting states of the hyphomycetes.

"Scientific American Supplement, No. 385, May 19, 1883" by Various

Related words Reverse dictionary (*) Typos (*)

gyphomycetes, yyphomycetes, jyphomycetes, nyphomycetes, byphomycetes, htphomycetes, hgphomycetes, hhphomycetes, huphomycetes, hyohomycetes, hylhomycetes, hypgomycetes, hypyomycetes, hypjomycetes, hypnomycetes, hypbomycetes, hyphimycetes, hyphkmycetes, hyphlmycetes, hyphpmycetes, hyphonycetes, hyphojycetes, hyphokycetes, hyphomtcetes, hyphomgcetes, hyphomhcetes, hyphomucetes, hyphomyxetes, hyphomydetes, hyphomyfetes, hyphomyvetes, hyphomycwtes, hyphomycstes, hyphomycdtes, hyphomycrtes, hyphomyceres, hyphomycefes, hyphomyceges, hyphomyceyes, hyphomycetws, hyphomycetss, hyphomycetds, hyphomycetrs, hyphomycetea, hyphomycetew, hyphomyceted, hyphomycetex, hyphomycetez, hyphomycetea

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Other articles

Hyphomycetes classification essay

Hyphomycetes Hyphomycetes

A class of mitosporic or anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) fungi belonging to the Deuteromycotina. They lack locular fruit bodies (conidiomata), and so sporulation occurs on separate or aggregated hyphae, which may or may not be differentiated; the thallus consists of septate hyphae. About 1400 genera comprising more than 11,500 species are recognized.

The Hyphomycetes, like other groups of Deuteromycetes, is an artificial one composed almost entirely of anamorphic fungi of ascomycete affinity. The majority are known anamorphs of Ascomycetes, although some have basidiomycete affinities. Several of the latter are aquatic or aero-aquatic. Taxa are referred to as form genera and form species, because the absence of a sexual or perfect teleomorph state forces classification and identification by artificial rather than phylogenetic means. The unifying feature of the group is the production of conidia from superficial, exposed conidiogenous cells arising separately from vegetative hyphae or cells (mononematous), or incorporated on conidiophores that may be entirely separate or aggregated in cushion-like sporodochia or stalk-like synnemata. Differences in insertion and arrangement of conidiogenous cells and conidiophores traditionally have been used to separate three orders. In the Hyphomycetales they are solitary or at most fasciculate and tufted; in the Tuberculariales they are produced over the outer surface of a cushion-shaped-to-flattened conidioma (sporodochium), and in the Stilbellales they are united into a stipitate conidioma (synnema). An alternative means of classifying hyphomycetes is based on differences in the ways that conidia are produced and conidiogenous cells grow before, during, and after conidiogenesis. See Ascomycota. Basidiomycota. Coelomycetes

To the naked eye, hyphomycete colonies are conspicuous as black, brown, green, gray, and white growths on substrata. In size, hyphomycete conidia vary from the minute to extremely long or wide. Shapes vary markedly within and between genera. Many hyphomycetes produce conidia in mucilaginous matrices. As in the Coelomycetes, the matrix inhibits or retards germination until the conidia become dispersed, and maintains germinability during periods of environmental stress. Other genera produce conidia in powdery masses, such hydrophobic conidia being more suited for air dispersal. Sterile elements in the form of simple or branched setae are commonly present among conidiophores or on conidiomata, and since they are particularly common among leaf-litter fungi they are thought to function as a form of predator defense.

The Hyphomycetes draw nourishment from living or dead organic matter and are adapted to grow, reproduce, and survive in a wide range of ecological situations. They can also be either stress-tolerant or combative. Some species grow among rubbish, and because their thin-walled, hyaline vegetative and reproductive structures make them more prone to attack and decay, they are ephemeral. Their ability to colonize, decompose, and use substrates and to interact with or parasitize other organisms is a result of the enzymes, antibiotics, toxins, and other metabolites they produce, coupled with wide genetic diversity. They are extremely common in soils of all types and on leaf litter and other organic debris of both natural and manufactured origin. They also cause extensive problems in food spoilage and occur in saline, stagnant, and fresh water.

Some hyphomycetes are found on or associated with fungi, including pathogens such as Verticillium. Mycogone. and Cladobotryum. and on lichens. Several are of medical importance, being associated with superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, and systemic infections. They are often opportunistic organisms that cause infections in immunocompromised patients. Toxic metabolites, or mycotoxins, are formed by many hyphomycetes, notably Aspergillus. Fusarium. and Penicillium. Others are nematophagous, capturing or consuming nematodes and other microfauna. Beauveria. Metarhizium. Hirsutella. and Entomophthora. for example, have been exploited for insect control. Many also cause economically important diseases in all types of vascular plants, especially agricultural and forestry crops. Hyphomycetes are primary pathogens of plants and weeds, causing root, stem, and leaf necrosis; diebacks; cankers; wilts; and blights. By infesting or contaminating seed, they can transmit seed-borne defects or reduce seed viability. See Medical mycology. Mycotoxin. Plant pathology

Hyphomycetes produce a wide variety of primary and secondary metabolites and are capable of effecting many different chemical and biochemical changes. By harnessing that capability in industrial processes, organic acids, enzymes, antibiotics, growth substances, alcohol, and cheese, among others, can be produced and steroid transformation can take place. See Deuteromycotina. Fungi

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An illustrated key to the common temperate species of aquatic hyphomycetes .

Dematiaceous hyphomycetes are a large, heterogenous group of fungi which inhabiting the environments around the world as soil saprophytes and plant pathogens [2].

They found that high species diversity of hyphomycetes and peak fungal biomass coincided with roughly a 50% loss in leaf mass in a French stream (Gessner el al.

Sigler (1980), Genera of Hyphomycetes. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alb.

Sensibilite des larves de Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) aux hyphomycetes entompathogenes Nomuraea rileyi et Paecilomyces fumosoroseus.

1-before 2A-after 3A-after kiln-drying kiln drying CCA treatment Species or genus or group (20 cores) (20 cores) (16 cores) Mitosporic fungi (Microfungi) Hyphomycetes Alternaria spp.

The Hyphomycetes are common and well known soil-borne pathogens in nature, with a wide range of insect hosts, and are considered excellent biological control agents (Gouli et al.

Infection of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lagens (Homoptera: Delphacidae), by field application of entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes (Deuteromycotina).

Two species of Hyphomycetes entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuilleimin and Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) (Samson) and 1 nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculoviridae) were found.

Hyphomycetes classification essay

Hyphomycetes

Hyphomycetales
Stilbellales
Tuberculariales

Hyphomycetes are a form classification of Fungi. part of what has often been referred to as Fungi imperfecti, Deuteromycota. or anamorphic fungi. Hyphomycetes lack closed fruit bodies. and are often referred to as moulds (or molds). Most hyphomycetes are now assigned to the Ascomycota. on the basis of genetic connections made by life-cycle studies or by phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences ; many remain unassigned phylogenetically. Identification of hyphomycetes is primarily based on microscopic morphology including: conidial morphology, especially septation. shape, size, colour and cell wall texture, the arrangement of conidia as they are borne on the conidiogenous cells (e.g. if they are solitary, arthrocatenate, blastocatenate, basocatenate, or gloiosporae), the type conidiogenous cell (e.g. non-specialized or hypha -like, phialide. annellide, or sympodial ), and other additional features such as the presence of sporodochia or synnemata. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ]

Taxonomic and nomenclatural history

Because asexual forms of fungi usually occur separately from their sexual forms, when microscopic fungi began to be studied in the early 19th century, it was often unknown when two morphologically different forms were actually part of one species. The tendency for some organisms to apparently only have asexual forms, or for their sexual forms to be discovered long after the asexual forms, meant that an independent taxonomy was developed for asexual fungi. Near the beginning of the 20th century, when it became clearer that many asexual and sexual forms were related, the concept of 'form taxa' was developed. The independent taxonomy of asexual forms was regarded as artificial, not representative of evolutionary relationships, and intended to be practical for identification purposes. The taxonomy of the sexual states was considered the true classification. The result was that many fungal species ended up with two accepted Latin binomials, one for the asexual form (or anamorph) and the other for the sexual form (teleomorph). This dual nomenclature was only abandoned in January 2012, [ 4 ] and the transition to a single name system, with one name representing all morphs of a fungus, is still incomplete. [ 5 ]

Ecological importance

Aquatic or Ingoldian hyphomycetes are common on submerged decaying leaves and other organic matter, especially in clean running water with good aeration. Colonised leaves fall from the tree into the river. Their branched, septate mycelium penetrates through the leaf surface and spreads through leaf tissue. Conidiophores project into the water and bear conidia, which are often sigmoid, branched or tetraradiate structures. Aquatic hyphomycetes play an important role in the breakdown of organic matter in rivers, because their extracellular enzymes break down leaf tissue, which in turn is made more palatable to invertebrates. Leaves with fungi (conditioned) are a more nutritious source of food than unconditioned leaves. [ 6 ]

Coprophilous or dung-loving hyphomycetes are part of the succession of fungi occurring on many kinds of herbivore faeces, playing an important role in breaking down cellulose. [ 7 ] Several species are found only on dung, such as Angulimaya sundara. Onychophora coprophila. Pulchromyces fimicola. Sphondylocephalum verticillatum and Stilbella fimetaria .

Entomogenous. entomopathogenic or insect-pathogenic hyphomycetes infect and kill insects (and spiders) and are especially diverse in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Asia. [ 8 ] Most are asexual states of or phylogenetically related to the Ascomycete families, Cordycipitaceae and Ophiocordycipitaceae. Insect hosts are infected by asexual spores, which germinate and grow to fill the host body with mycelium or hyphal bodies, then produce sporulating structures on the insect carcass. They are often found on dead insects under bark or in soil, but some affect insect behaviour ("zombie fungus "), causing infected hosts to climb towards the light, ensuring that air-borne infective spores will be released higher up in the canopy of the forest or meadow. [ 9 ] Well-known entomogenous hyphomycetes are classified in Beauveria . Metarhizium and Tolypocladium ; famous anamorphic generic names such as Akanthomyces. Gibellula. Hirsutella . Hymenostilbe and Isaria are now subsumed in genera formerly considered sexual, such as Cordyceps . Ophiocordyceps and Torubiella under fungal single-name nomenclature. [ 10 ] Species of Beauveria and Metarhizium show some promise as biological control agents against pest insects. [ 11 ] Tolypocladium inflatum was the original source of cyclosporine A. used as a drug to prevent rejection of organ transplants. [ 12 ]

Many food-borne fungi are hyphomycetes. Species of Penicillium and Aspergillus are particularly common agents of food spoilage and also produce important mycotoxins that affect human health. [ 13 ] Some species, such as Penicillium digitatum on citrus fruits, and Penicillium expansum on apples, are common on specific foods, while others are less specialized and grow on many different kinds of food.

Nematophagous or nematode-trapping hyphomycetes either live their life-cycles in the bodies of dead nematodes or trap and kill nematodes in order to supplement their nitrogen requirements. [ 14 ] Species of the hyphomycete genus Arthrobotrys . phylogenetically related to or being the asexual forms of Orbilia . produce constricting loops that quickly shut to grab nematodes, or non-constricting loops or hyphal networks that entangle nematodes, or sticky knobs that adhere to nematodes as they swim by. Attempts to exploit these fungi as biological control agents against agriculturally harmful nematodes have generally been unsuccessful. [ 15 ]

See also

Hyphomycetes: Wikis (The Full Wiki)

Hyphomycetes: Wikis

Hyphomycetes is a class of fungi in the phylum Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycota) that lack fruiting bodies. Identification of the Hyphomycetes is primarily based on microscopic morphology including: conidial morphology. especially septation. shape, size, colour and cell wall texture, the arrangement of conidia as they are borne on the conidiogenous cells (e.g. if they are solitary, arthrocatenate, blastocatenate, basocatenate, or gloiosporae), the type conidiogenous cell (e.g. non-specialized or hypha -like, phialide. annellide, or sympodial ), and other additional features such as the presence of sporodochia or synnemata. [ 1 ]

Contents Ecological Importance

• Common on submerged decaying leaves and other organic matter – Particularly in clean running water – Good aeration • Branched septate mycelium – Spreads through leaf tissue • Conidiophores – Project into the water – Bear conidia • Usually branched tetraradiate structures • Important role in the breakdown of organic matter in rivers – Leaf litter falls into river – Colonised and conditioned by fungi • Mycelium spreads over surface and penetrates leaf • Extra-cellular enzymes break down leaf tissue • Leaf tissue made more palatable to invertebrates • Leaves with fungi (conditioned) are a more nutritious source of food than unconditioned leaves • Hyphomycete fungi increase the food value of leaves in the aquatic environment

See also

Hyphomycetes classification essay

hyphomycete

hyphomycete — hy·pho·my·cete (hi″fo miґsēt) any individual organism of the class Hyphomycetes. hyphomycetous adj … Medical dictionary

Marta Noemí Cabello — Nacimiento 1953 Residencia  Argentina Nacionalidad … Wikipedia Español

Penicillium roqueforti — Blue Stilton cheese, showing the blue green mold veins produced by Penicillin roqueforti. Scientific classification Kingdom … Wikipedia

Curvularia — geniculata Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi … Wikipedia

Károly Kalchbrenner — Károly Kalchbrenner, born 5th may 1807 in Pöttelsdorf, died 5th June 1886 in Spišské Vlachy, was a Hungarian mycologist. He trained in theology early in life and became a priest in Spišské Vlachy in Northeastern Slovakia. His contributions… … Wikipedia

Dothideomycetes — Von einer Gewölbedecke hängendes Kellertuch (Zasmidium cellare) Systematik Domäne: Eukaryoten (Eucaryota) ohn … Deutsch Wikipedia

Glechoma hederacea — Gundermann Gundermann (Glechoma hederacea) Systematik Unterklasse: Asternähnliche (Asteridae) … Deutsch Wikipedia

Gundelrebe — Gundermann Gundermann (Glechoma hederacea) Systematik Unterklasse: Asternähnliche (Asteridae) … Deutsch Wikipedia

Gundermann — (Glechoma hederacea) Systematik Euasteriden I Ordnung: Lippenblütlerartige (Lamiales) … Deutsch Wikipedia

An essay on the classification of Moniliaceous medical fungi

An essay on the classification of Moniliaceous medical fungi Cite this article as: Ciferri, R. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata (1961) 14: 161. doi:10.1007/BF02057323
  • 3 Citations
  • 33 Views
Summary

A key and a plan of tentative classification of the fundamental families of medical fungi are given. It is based on the presence, in tissues or cultures, of different categories of true spores, conidia and vegetative spores (thallospores). The most important “medical” genera of fungi, with type species, basonym, author and data for each family of fungi are listed. The apparent morphological affinity between certain families of fungi is suggested.

Literature quoted

Ciferri, R. 1958.Manuale di Micologia Medica. 1 (also 2, I ed. 1959; II ed. 1960) (Cortina) Pavia.

Ciferri, R. & P. Redaelli. 1955. La moderna sistematica dei miceti patogeni per l'umo e gli animali. Atti VI Congr. Int. Microbiol. 1953,5 Sez. 14, 109–115.

Coudert, J. 1955.Guide pratique de mycologie médical. (Masson) Paris.

Dodge, C. W. 1935.Medical Mycology — Fungous Diseases of Men and other Mammals. (Mosby) St. Louis.

Hughes, S. J. 1953.Conidiophores, conidia and classification. Canad. J. Bot.,31 577–659.

Mason, E. W. 1933.Annotated account of fungi received at the Imperial Mycological Institute. List 2, fasc. 2, 1–67.

——, 1937. Ibid. List 2, fasc. 3, 68–69 (for the general part).

——, 1941. Ibid. List 2, fasc. 3, 100–144 (for the special part).

Nannizzi, A. 1934.Miceti dell'uomo e degli animali. (S. Bernardino) Siena.

Tubaki, K. 1958.Studies in the Japanese Hyphomycetes. V. Leaf and Stemgroup with a discussion on the classification of Hyphomycetes and their perfect stages. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. No. 20, 142–237.

Vuillemin, P. 1931.Les champignons parasites et les mycoses de l'homme. (Lechevalier) Paris.

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1961

Hyphomycetes classification essay

hyphomycete

hyphomycete — ˌhīfōˈmīˌsēt, | ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ˌ ̷ ̷| ̷ ̷ noun ( s) Etymology: New Latin Hyphomycetes. a fungus of the subclass Hyphomycetes … Useful english dictionary

Marta Noemí Cabello — Nacimiento 1953 Residencia  Argentina Nacionalidad … Wikipedia Español

Penicillium roqueforti — Blue Stilton cheese, showing the blue green mold veins produced by Penicillin roqueforti. Scientific classification Kingdom … Wikipedia

Curvularia — geniculata Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi … Wikipedia

Károly Kalchbrenner — Károly Kalchbrenner, born 5th may 1807 in Pöttelsdorf, died 5th June 1886 in Spišské Vlachy, was a Hungarian mycologist. He trained in theology early in life and became a priest in Spišské Vlachy in Northeastern Slovakia. His contributions… … Wikipedia

Dothideomycetes — Von einer Gewölbedecke hängendes Kellertuch (Zasmidium cellare) Systematik Domäne: Eukaryoten (Eucaryota) ohn … Deutsch Wikipedia

Glechoma hederacea — Gundermann Gundermann (Glechoma hederacea) Systematik Unterklasse: Asternähnliche (Asteridae) … Deutsch Wikipedia

Gundelrebe — Gundermann Gundermann (Glechoma hederacea) Systematik Unterklasse: Asternähnliche (Asteridae) … Deutsch Wikipedia

Gundermann — (Glechoma hederacea) Systematik Euasteriden I Ordnung: Lippenblütlerartige (Lamiales) … Deutsch Wikipedia

Hyphomycetes classification essay

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

Hyphomycetes are a form classification of Fungi. part of what has often been referred to as Fungi imperfecti, Deuteromycota. or anamorphic fungi. Hyphomycetes lack closed fruit bodies. and are often referred to as moulds (or molds). Most hyphomycetes are now assigned to the Ascomycota. on the basis of genetic connections made by life-cycle studies or by phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences ; many remain unassigned phylogenetically. Identification of hyphomycetes is primarily based on microscopic morphology including: conidial morphology, especially septation. shape, size, colour and cell wall texture, the arrangement of conidia as they are borne on the conidiogenous cells (e.g. if they are solitary, arthrocatenate. blastocatenate. basocatenate. or gloiosporae ), the type conidiogenous cell (e.g. non-specialized or hypha -like, phialide. annellide. or sympodial ), and other additional features such as the presence of sporodochia or synnemata. [1] [2] [3]

Contents Taxonomic and nomenclatural history [ edit ]

Because asexual forms of fungi usually occur separately from their sexual forms, when microscopic fungi began to be studied in the early 19th century, it was often unknown when two morphologically different forms were actually part of one species. The tendency for some organisms to apparently only have asexual forms, or for their sexual forms to be discovered long after the asexual forms, meant that an independent taxonomy was developed for asexual fungi. Near the beginning of the 20th century, when it became clearer that many asexual and sexual forms were related, the concept of 'form taxa' was developed. The independent taxonomy of asexual forms was regarded as artificial, not representative of evolutionary relationships, and intended to be practical for identification purposes. The taxonomy of the sexual states was considered the true classification. The result was that many fungal species ended up with two accepted Latin binomials, one for the asexual form (or anamorph) and the other for the sexual form (teleomorph). This dual nomenclature was only abandoned in January 2012, [4] and the transition to a single name system, with one name representing all morphs of a fungus, is still incomplete. [5]

Ecological importance [ edit ]

Aquatic or Ingoldian hyphomycetes are common on submerged decaying leaves and other organic matter, especially in clean running water with good aeration. Colonised leaves fall from the tree into the river. Their branched, septate mycelium penetrates through the leaf surface and spreads through leaf tissue. Conidiophores project into the water and bear conidia, which are often sigmoid, branched or tetraradiate structures. Aquatic hyphomycetes play an important role in the breakdown of organic matter in rivers, because their extracellular enzymes break down leaf tissue, which in turn is made more palatable to invertebrates. Leaves with fungi (conditioned) are a more nutritious source of food than unconditioned leaves. [6]

Entomogenous. entomopathogenic or insect-pathogenic hyphomycetes infect and kill insects (and spiders) and are especially diverse in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Asia. [8] Most are asexual states of or phylogenetically related to the Ascomycete families, Cordycipitaceae and Ophiocordycipitaceae. Insect hosts are infected by asexual spores, which germinate and grow to fill the host body with mycelium or hyphal bodies, then produce sporulating structures on the insect carcass. They are often found on dead insects under bark or in soil, but some affect insect behaviour ("zombie fungus "), causing infected hosts to climb towards the light, ensuring that air-borne infective spores will be released higher up in the canopy of the forest or meadow. [9] Well-known entomogenous hyphomycetes are classified in Beauveria . Metarhizium and Tolypocladium ; famous anamorphic generic names such as Akanthomyces . Gibellula . Hirsutella . Hymenostilbe and Isaria are now subsumed in genera formerly considered sexual, such as Cordyceps . Ophiocordyceps and Torubiella under fungal single-name nomenclature. [10] Species of Beauveria and Metarhizium show some promise as biological control agents against pest insects. [11] Tolypocladium inflatum was the original source of cyclosporine A. used as a drug to prevent rejection of organ transplants. [12]

Many food-borne fungi are hyphomycetes. Species of Penicillium and Aspergillus are particularly common agents of food spoilage and also produce important mycotoxins that affect human health. [13] Some species, such as Penicillium digitatum on citrus fruits, and Penicillium expansum on apples, are common on specific foods, while others are less specialized and grow on many different kinds of food.

Nematophagous or nematode-trapping hyphomycetes either live their life-cycles in the bodies of dead nematodes or trap and kill nematodes in order to supplement their nitrogen requirements. [14] Species of the hyphomycete genus Arthrobotrys . phylogenetically related to or being the asexual forms of Orbilia . produce constricting loops that quickly shut to grab nematodes, or non-constricting loops or hyphal networks that entangle nematodes, or sticky knobs that adhere to nematodes as they swim by. Attempts to exploit these fungi as biological control agents against agriculturally harmful nematodes have generally been unsuccessful. [15]

See also [ edit ]
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