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Brain Tumour Research Paper

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Brain Cancer Essay Research Paper Brain Cancer

The brain is the center of thought, emotion, memory, speech, and many more, and it is the most sophisticated organ in the human body. A hard skull protects the brain where it floats in a fluid called Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). The brain is generally set apart from the rest of the body, and functions rather differently too. Most of the brain cells are called astrocytes, and they basically support and serve the 10 billion working cells that are called neurons. These neurons make about 13 trillion connections with one another to sustain life within the human body.

Brain tumors can arise at any time and damage this complex organ in various ways. Some risk factors are environmental, like radiation from previous cancer treatment. Other risk factors are mainly due to immune system disorders, and rarely do they run in the family. Therefore, abnormalities of genes (mutations) are the main cause for brain cancer.

It all starts in a single cell anywhere in the brain, since any type of cell there can become cancerous. Unlike cancer in other organs of the body, brain tumors spread locally and cause a lot of damage to the normal tissue in the place where they originated.

Most brain tumors are primary, and the two most common types are astrocytomas that start in the astrocytes, and glioblastomas multiforme. Primary brain tumors, which originate in or around the brain rarely spread to other another organ, though cancer in other organs, like the lungs, can spread or metastize to the brain. Such tumors are called metastic brain cancers and they are treated differently.

The symptoms or signs which hint to the existence of a brain tumor include:

If a patient’s symptoms suggest the presence of a brain tumor, a few examinations could be done. First, a physical examination is done, and the patient’s complete medical history is studied. If there is a problem, imaging studies will show the tumor if it is present. Early detection and treatment usually don’t affect the chances of survival. The two most common imaging studies used are the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the computed tomography (CT) scan. The difference is that a CT is a type of cross-section X-ray, but an MRI uses strong magnets and radio waves instead. Other imaging studies like the position emission tomography (PET) and the angiography are less used because they only produce specific information dealing with certain aspects of a tumor.

All these examinations are then used to diagnose the tumor, but to achieve definite results, a biopsy is needed where a neurosurgeon removes some of the cancerous tissue for examination under a microscope to determine the best treatment and the chances of survival.

Due to the unique characteristics of brain cancer, treatment is extremely difficult and a cure is not possible since it would have to (1) treat the whole brain, (1) get to places where the blood flow does not reach, (3) kill every single cancerous cell without damaging the rest of the functional brain.

Unfortunately, such a cure has yet to be discovered, and the best treatment nowadays is called standard therapy. First, surgery is performed removing about 90% of the tumor. Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy follow to achieve the maximum therapeutic benefit. Since most brain cancer is not caused by any definite causes, and occurs for no apparent reason, it cannot be prevented, especially in children (astrocytoma and the medulloblastoma).

Because many parts of the brain are essential to life, a tumor that starts in any of these areas may be impossible to remove, and can eventually be life threatening.

Tumor Clinical Features Treatment & Prognosis

Glioblastoma multiforme Presents commonly with nonspecific complaints and increased intracranial pressure. As it grows, focal deficits develop. Course is rapidly progressive, with poor prognosis. Total surgical removal is usually not possible, and response to radiation therapy is poor.

Astrocytoma Presentation similar to glioblastoma multiforme but course more protracted, often over several years. Cerebellar astrocytma, especially in children, may have a more benign course. Prognosis is variable. By the time of diagnosis, total excision is usually impossible; tumor often is not radiosensitive. In cerebellar astrocytoma, total surgical removal is often possible.

Medulloblastoma Seen most frequently in children. Generally arises from roof of fourth ventricle and leads to increased intracranial pressure accompanied by brain stem and cerebellar signs. May seed subarachnoid space. Treatment consists of surgery combined with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Ependymoma Glioma arising from the ependyma of a ventricle, especially the fourth ventricle; leads early signs of increased intracranial pressure. Arises also from central canal of cord. Tumor is not radiosensitive and is best treated surgically if possible.

Tumor Clinical Features Treatment & Prognosis

Brain stem glioma Presents during childhood with cranial nerve palsies and then with long-tract sings in the limbs. Signs of increased intracranial pressure occur late. Tumor is inoperable; treatment is by irradiation and shunt for increased intracranial pressure.

Cerebellar hemangioblastoma Presents with disequilibrium, ataxia of trunk or limbs, and signs of increased intracranial pressure. Sometimes familial. May be associated with retinal and spinal vascular lesions, polycythemia, and hypernephromas. Treatment is surgical.

Pineal tumor Presents with increased intracranial pressure, sometimes associated with impaired upward gaze (Parinaud’s syndrome) and other deficits indicative of midbrain lesion. Ventricular decompression by shunting is followed by surgical approach of tumor; irradiation is indicated if tumor is malignant. Prognosis depends on histopathologic findings and extent of tumor.

Craniopharyngioma Originates from remnants of Rathke’s pouch above the sella, depressing the optic chiasm. May present at any age but usually in childhood, with endocrine dysfunction and bitemporal field defects. Treatment is surgical, but total removal may not be possible.

Acoustic neurinoma Ipsilateral hearing loss is most common initial symptom. Subsequent symptoms may include tinnitus, headache, vertigo, facial weakness or numbness, and long-tract signs. (May be familial and bilateral when related to neurofibromatosis.) Most sensitive screening tests are MRI and brain stem auditory evoked potential. Treatment is excision by translabyrinthine surgery, craniectomy, or combined approach. Outcome is usually good.

Meningioma Originates from the dura mater or arachnoid; compresses rather than invades adjacent neural structures. Increasingly common with advancing age. Tumor size caries greatly. Symptoms vary with tumor site. Tumor is usually benign and readily detected by CT scanning; may lead to calcification and bone erosion visible on plain x-rays of skull. Treatment is surgical. Tumor may recur if removal is incomplete.

Primary cerebral lymphoma Associated with AIDS and other immunodeficient states. Presentation may be with focal deficits or with disturbances of cognition and consciousness. May be indistinguishable from cerebral toxoplasmosis. Treatment is by whole-brain irradiation; chemotherapy may gave an adjunctive role.

To date, the best treatment for malignant astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a combination of:

Surgery (Gross total removal, i.e. 80 – 99%)

Radiotherapy (5,000 – 6,000 Rads)

Growth Dynamics (GBM):

Growth Fraction = 20% (Only a percentage of the tumor is growing at any one time)

Cell Cycle Time = 2 – 5 Days (This is how long it takes a growing cell to reproduce)

Cell Loss = 80 – 90% (A high percentage of cells spontaneously die off)

Doubling Time = Around 7 Days

Other articles

Brain Tumors

Brain Tumors

BRAIN TUMORS
(Meningioma and Oligodendroglioma)

I. Pathology
A. Meningioma
II. Etiology
A. No known cause
B. Uncontrolled division of meningial cells
III. Specifics
A. Affected cell - meninges (cover and protection of brain and spinal cord)
B. Accounts for 20% of all intracranial tumors
C. Typically benign
D. Between skull and brain
E. Compresses but does not invade brain
IV. Symptoms/Signs
A. Headaches
B. Stroke-like symptoms
C. Seizures
D. Loss of vision
E. Personality changes
F. CT scans and MRI’s can determine presence and exact location
V. Types
A. Convexity (curved part of the skull)
B. Cavernous sinus
C. Sphenoid wing
D. Clivus and parasellar regions
E. Cerebellar (also occur)
VI. Treatments
A. Surgical removal (most common, first option)
B. Regular radiation
C. Stereotactic Radiosurgery (precise radiation delivered to the brain without harm to surrounding tissue/ this is used for meningiomas that are more difficult to safely remove)
VII. Prognosis
A. Excellent (more than 95% survival rate)
B. Minimal physical therapy may be necessary

My aunt just recently had surgery to remove a benign meningioma. The surgery was a success and had she survived despite further complications, her treatment following the surgery was to be mere physical therapy to regain full or partial use of her left hand.

I. Pathology
A. Oligodendroglioma
II. Etiology
A. Unknown
III. Specifics
A. Affects oligodendrocytes (responsible for myelin production, which covers nerves
and allows for quick conduction of information)
B. Most common in male adults
C. May be benign or malignant and spread to other parts of brain or even outside
IV. Symptoms/Signs
A. Headaches
B. Vomiting
C. Visual complications
D. Memory loss
E. Problems with coordination and speech
F. Mood and personality changes
G. Paralysis on one side
H. CT scans and MRI’s can determine presence and exact location of tumors
V. Types
A. Frontal lobe
B. Temporal lobe
VI. Treatment
A. Surgery
B. Radiotherapy
C. Chemotherapy

VII. Prognosis
A. Poor long term
B. Often fatality

In addition to current treatment methods for tumors (chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and stereostatic radiosurgery), testing is being done to determine the effects of hyperthermia, gene and viral therapy, as well as immunotherapy (vaccines) as possible treatment methods. This may be useful because most tumors are more sensitive to heat than other tissues. Of course, as with all cancers and diseases, continuous research is also being done to determine specific causes.


1.) “Histochemistry and Cell Biology.” Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 1999, 2000, 2001. http://www.lionk.springer.de/search.htm (20 Mar. 2002)
2.) “Johns Hopkins Radiosurgery.” The John Hopkins University. 2000. http://www.med.jhu.edu/radiosurgery/frames/radiosurgery-ma.html (20 Mar. 2002)
3.) “Brain Tumor Group.” Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University, Post Graduate School of Medicine. 1999. http://www.med.Nagoya-u.ac.jp/neurosurg/brain-ge.htm (20 Mar. 2002)
4.) “Understanding Brain Tumors .” Oligodendroglioma. Cancer BACUP. http://www.bacup.org.uk/info/brain/brain-8.htm (21 Mar. 2002)
5.) Tatter, Stephen B. M.D. Ph.D. “Brain Tumor Guide.” 1999. http://www.bgsm.edu/surg-sci/ns/btg-outline.html (26 Mar. 2002)

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Brain tumor research paper - Valley Junction

Brain tumor research paper

Brain tumor research paper

Rosanne 04/08/2015 21:27:37

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Tumor research paper

Tumor research paper

Tumor research paper

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Brain Tumors - Research Papers - 306 Words

Brain Tumors

BRAIN TUMORS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
Brain tumors are defined abnormal growth of cells within the brain or the central spinal area. It may result in death if not treated. Its physical symptoms are chronic seizures, chronic headaches, progressive neurologic deficits, in children Gait disturbance, failure to thrive and increasing head size. There are also clinical symptoms and some of these are cognitive deficits such as hakims trait of hydrocephalus and visual problems like hemi paresis. It can be diagnosed radiologically through Brain magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRI’s) with or without paramagnetic contrast, head computed tomography (CT) scans which both provide information on the size, location, morphology, mass effect and clues to malignancy. The cancer may lead to neurological complications such as gait ataxia, papilledema, hemi sensory deficits, breast mass and abdominal mass. These tumors can be managed through surgical means such as neuroendoscopy, micro neurosurgery and stereotactic surgery. All these may provide tissue for H path diagnosis, reduce tumor load, reduce mass effect and helps prolong useful life. Brain tumors and cancer propel neuropsychological changes which involve changes between brain functions and behavior such as headaches and cognitive dysfunctions which may include memory problems, mood alteration and even strokes. Resulting from brain tumors, patients may develop deficits such as poor attention and concentration, visual spatial processing, mathematics and reading problems, poor visual motor integration and speed and these deficits depend on the location of tumors, size and grade of development. With some of these deficits, the individual might easily forget names, drive recklessly and even be a ‘‘bad’’ student when in school. Rehabilitation takes place with intervention, during which the patient compelled or counseled on the cancer. Remediation also as a rehabilitation method involves giving out medical drugs to the patient. The.

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Brain tumor research paper, Service editor?

Brain tumor research paper

Brain tumor research paper

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Brain tumor research paper

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Brain Cancer Essay Research Paper The body

Brain Cancer Essay Research Paper The body Brain Cancer Essay Research Paper The body

Brain Cancer Essay, Research Paper

The body normally forms new cells only when they are needed to replace old or

damaged ones. If something happens to disturb this controlled process, abnormal

or excessive cells are produced. When this occurs a tumor is developed. This is

known as cancer. When a tumor is developed on the brain, it is called a brain

tumor or brain cancer. Brain tumors can be benign or malignant (benign being not

cancerous and malignant being cancerous). Both types can be deadly when dealing

with the brain. Benign brain tumors consist of very slow growing cells. They

have distinct borders and rarely spread to other locations. When viewed under a

microscope, the cells of a benign tumor have an almost normal appearance. Even

though these tumors sound harmless they can be life-threatening when located in

such a vital area. Since the skull is unable to expand when the tumor grows it

puts? pressure on the brain. This results in damaged brain tissues and if left

untreated a person could die. A malignant tumor is a tumor that could

potentially invade and destroy important tissues and cells. They can also spread

to other parts of the body (metastasize). Brain tumors can initially start in

the brain. They can also spread to other parts of the body from the brain but

this rarely happens. Some tumors may be worse than others. Tumor staging is used

to determine the extent of cancer. The stage indicates if the cancer has spread

and how far. The stages are listed below: T = Primary tumor size/extent T0:

Primary tumor not present T1, T2, T3, T4 The higher the number, the larger the

size/extent of the tumor. N = Regional lymph node involvement N0: No lymph node

involvement N1, N2, N3 The higher the number, the more lymph node involvement. M

= Distant metastasis M0: no metastasis M1: Metastasis present The cause of brain

cancer is unknown. It is likely they are caused by many factors. Some of these

factors are genetic damage, inheritance, electromagnetic fields, weak immune

system, viruses, injury, diet, chemicals, hormones, environmental factors, and

occupational factors. The most common and often first symptoms of brain tumors

are headaches and seizures. Later symptoms include nausea, vomiting, fever,

change in pulse, and trouble breathing. Mental changes may also occur such as

difficulty in communication and speech. In general symptoms greatly depend on

the location of the tumor. For example if the tumor is on the occipital lobe,

you would have problems with your vision. Treatment of a tumor depends on its

location and type, but surgical removal of the tumor if the primary treatment

for cancer. Some tumors can be removed without harm to any part of the brain

while others are in areas that make surgical removal impossible. Most tumors are

treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. A

new procedure is being tried called gamma knife, which is a type of radio

surgery. It uses precise radiation to isolate and kill the tumor. One positive

aspect of this procedure is that it limits the amount of radiation that the

entire brain receives so less normal brain cells are destroyed. Some Statistics

✓ Within the next year, over 100,000 people in the U.S. will be diagnosed

with brain cancer. ✓ Brain tumors are the second leading cause of death

in the age group 15-34. ✓ Brain tumors are the second fastest growing

cause of cancer death among those over age 65. ✓ Approximately 44 percent

of all primary brain tumors are benign. ✓ Unlike most benign tumors when

located on the brain they can cause death. ✓ Because of their location

brain, tumors are difficult to treat. ✓ Brain cancer research is

underfunded. ✓ The cause of brain cancer is still unknown. ✓ The

cure rate for brain cancer is lower than that of most other types of cancer.