Personality is believed to be possessed by all people in differing degrees. How people tend to think, feel, and behave and what causes individuals to have these tendencies are questions addressed by personality theory and research.
Whereas developmental psychology and social psychology have merged as a subject matter in psychology, personality has never truly found that unity. There has never been a fundamentally acceptable definition as to what personality is.
These aspects have not prevented personality from being the subject of psychological research and theory-making. According to Dr. C. George Boeree "What makes personality theories so interesting, I think, is that we can actually participate in the process. You don't need labs and federal funding, just a bit of intelligence, some motivation, and an open mind" (http://www.ship.edu).
After reading the text, Perspectives on Personalities, by Charles S. Carver and Michael F. Scheier, I have to say that I am most drawn to the disposition and biological perspectives of personality theories. I believe that personality is by some means the central part of who we are and it is this belief that I feel that has kept personality under scrutiny and under debate for years.
When comparing the two perspectives, it is easy to see how very interactive they are. Dispositional perspective is the most basic, traditional approach to personality. This perspective generates systems for categorizing and describing characteristics for which people differ, how they are consistent between situations, and how they are consistent over time (http://www.sci.csuhayward.edu).
With the biological perspective, I find it reasonable to assume that the cells and molecules that are used to form tissues and organs that make a human being play a role in shaping consciousness. In particular, I believe the nervous system, as well as the brain and spinal cord, the endocrine system, and the encoEssays Related to Personality Theory
This book draws out the essence of a range of personality theories in a clear and accessible way, moving from the seminal works of Freud and other prominent analytical theorists, to the stage theories of Erikson and Levinson and the development of personality as it is viewed in existential and person-centred theory. The text: highlights the salient points of different personality theories; critiques the theories; and examines important aspects of personality development neglected by previous books on this topic such as spirituality and the development of racial identity and gender. The book reflects strongly on the context from which the theories sprang and seeks to trace how this context has influenced the theorists and their disciples. It also highlights the similarities between the concepts and structure of many of the theories. The authors, both themselves experienced counsellors and trainers, try to evaluate which elements of the theories can be useful to the work of the therapist in the twenty first century. The book is illustrated by examples from their case work. "Personality Development" is a valuable new resource for practitioners, lecturers and trainers as well as students of counselling, psychotherapy and psychology.Table of contents
Acknowledgements Series editor's preface Preface Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic developmental theories The developmental theories of Erikson and Levinson Personality development in person-centred theory Existential approaches Moral development Feminist critiques of developmental theories Cultural factors in personality development Transpersonal and psycho-spiritual psychology Conclusion References Index.
Counselling Theory Essay. in the role of expert of the process which is part based on Gendlins experiencing theory.
Counselling Theories Essay Research Paper This essay. The theory describes the enigma precipitated by the child s need to direct all emotions at one.
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This essay will critically review and evaluate how important the past. It pays particular attention to Freudâ€™s psychodynamic theory of counselling and.
However, this essay will consider the first two periods of the history within the Rogers theory of counselling.
Pedersen1991 cited I Pedersen 1994 presented the possibility of a new generic multicultural theory, a ‘fourth. And Counselling Essay Research Paper.
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Below is an essay on "Person Centred Therapy Theory" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
“Evaluate the claim that Person-Centred Therapy offers the therapist all that he/she will need to treat clients.”
Before evaluating the question we need to look at what are the theories behind person centred therapy. Carl Rogers was born on 8th January 1902 and is the founder of the person centred therapy approach. As an organismic theory he believed that all people were good and that given the right environment they were able to recognise their own worth and grow to their full potential and be able to acquire the skills necessary to solve their own problems. The therapy is client led rather than therapist led and focuses on the here and now and not issues of childhood origin. It is free of any expectations. Given the right environment with the three core conditions it is believed the client is then able to become aware of their own feelings and to find their own sense of direction and solution without advice or direction from the therapist. The therapists role is to provide the core conditions required and to reflect back to the client what they are expressing and to “be in the moment” with that client, understanding them and allowing them to come to their own solution through hearing their own thoughts and words expressed back and feeling understood. The core conditions for person centred therapy are
1. Empathy - the therapist being able to feel or attempt to feel what the client is expressing without becoming lost in themselves. To understand the clients feelings in the here and now. To understand the clients thoughts and feelings and meanings from the clients own perspective. To see the clients world from their point of view.
2. Congruence/genuineness - The therapist is authentic and genuine and honest. With no air of authority and no hidden side. With body language matching verbal language so the client is not having to guess what the person is really like or thinks of them. To be transparent and present to the client.
Essay Key Concepts of Person-Centered Theory and over other 25,000+ free term papers, essays and research papers examples are available on the website!
Autor: people • May 10, 2012 • Essay • 750 Words (3 Pages) • 630 Views
The person-centered approach seeks to aid the client in becoming self-aware and realizing his or her capacity for wisdom and self-understanding. In addition, the client will learn to alter their self-concept and self-defeating behaviors (Thorne, 2006.) Corey (2009) reports that person-centered therapy (PCT) assumes people are trustworthy, inherently able to understand themselves and figure out their own problems without help from a mental health professional. If given the proper guidance, individuals can initiate and maintain self-growth. Below are five client comments and five proposed therapist responses. Each therapist response will utilize at least one key concept and support the primary goals of person-centered therapy.
Client Comment # 1: " I just don't know what to do, and I am hoping you can tell me."
Therapist Response #1: "I don't have the power to tell you what to do. But I've been where you are and I know how frightening 'not knowing' can be."
This response utilizes the PCT concept of congruence. The therapist answers from a place of genuine concern or realness by defining the therapist role and clarifying that the client-therapist relationship is collaborative not authoritative. This comment supports the overall goal of PCT which is to aid the client in obtaining greater independence and integration (Corey, 2009).
Client Comment #2: "My mother thinks I am making the wrong decision, and that makes me livid. She is always trying to control me."
Therapist Response #2: " Your mother is entitled to her opinion. However, you are the one living your life."
This comment supports the PCT concept of human beings' innate ability to make good decisions. Williams (2010) asserts that effective PCT allows the client to free themselves from internal and external influences of others so that they may obtain optimal human functioning. The comment supports the primary goal of empowering the client to direct his or her own life.
Client Comment #3: "I am only here because my wife made me come, and I don't want to hear her nagging anymore. I think counseling is stupid and definitely won't help me in any way!"
Therapist Response #3: "I apologize if you feel pressure to attend these sessions. I certainly don't like to be cornered into doing things I don't want to do. I would like to ask that you continue coming to the sessions because I think they will benefit you and your wife. I will not force you to participate but you are more than welcome to when and if you feel comfortable to do so."
This comment utilizes the PCT concept of allowing the client to resolve his or her issues without a therapist's interpretation or direction. It supports the overall goal of rewarding and valuing
This Essay Which Psychologist's Theory Best Describes Your Own Personality? and other 60,000+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on ReviewEssays.com
Autor: reviewessays • August 28, 2010 • Essay • 545 Words (3 Pages) • 594 Views
Which psychologist's theory best describes your own personality?
Personality can best be described as "personal qualities of an individual". No two people have the same personality, but yet all the different personalities in the world can be characterized into 4 main theories. The four psychologists that thought up the four theories are Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and Abraham Maslow. (pg.64) Each man based his theory on a different part of a person's personality development. The theory that best describes my personality is Maslow's.
Maslow's theory suggested that human needs could be put onto different levels, as if on a pyramid. (Pg. 65) Lower or more basic needs must be met before higher needs can be satisfied. (pg.65) For example, Maslow has the need for water, food and shelter at the bottom of the pyramid. As everyone knows a life as an underprivileged person is much harder then that of a wealthy person. It takes more strength to be underprivileged and rise to the top, knowing you did not start out with all the basic needs.
Maslow's theory best describes my personality because I agree with what he says that people need to satisfy the smaller needs of their life before going on to satisfy the bigger ones. In my life, I know that if I did not have the essential needs, such as water, food, shelter I would be depressed and saddened. It would be hard for me to push myself to do things such as go to school, get a job because I would feel lower then other classmates, or other employees. If I did not have shelter or a place I could go to then I would not be able to feel secure which would also keep me from loving my family and friends. Without family and friends it would be hard to gain esteem to reach higher and higher then what I have already mastered, or learned.
Even in my own life I have come across examples of Maslow's theory. One example is when a class project was assigned and I did not have the correct materials. Not having those materials made me feel as thought I could not move on to the next step, which would be doing the project. Another example of how Maslows theory has taken shape in my own life is something as simple as forgeting a lunch, or lunch money. Without having the basic essential need, food, I was hungry and did not feel I could go on the rest of the day in school.
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This is the psychological perspective popularized by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow that emphasizes the human capacity for choice and growth. The overriding assumption is that humans have free will and are not simply fated to behave in specific ways or are zombies blindly reacting to their environment. The humanists stated that the subject matter or psychology is the human subjective experience of the world - how human experience things, why they experience things, etc.
Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual's behavior is connected to his inner feelings and self-image.
Unlike the behaviorists, humanistic psychologists believe that humans are not solely the product of their environment. Rather humanistic psychologists study human meanings, understandings, and experiences involved in growing, teaching and learning. They emphasize characteristics that are shared by all human beings such as love, grief, caring and self worth.
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Humanistic psychologists study how people are influenced by their self-perceptions and the person meanings attached to their experiences. Humanistic psychologists are not primarily concerned with instinctual drives, responses to external stimuli, or past experiences. Rather, they consider conscious choices, responses to internal needs, and current circumstances to be important in shaping human behavior.
Humanistic theory is based upon the idea that everyone has the potential to make a contribution to society and be a good and likeable person - if their needs are fulfilled. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers led the humanistic theory movement and it was Maslow who developed the "pyramid of needs".
Maslow believed that fulfilling the needs - in the correct order - would allow individuals to become self actualised, fully able persons. So only after the basic physiological needs - such as food, shelter, warmth - are met can individuals move on to the next stages; the need to feel secure, to be loved and accepted etc.
Maslow developed his theory not by studying mentally ill patients, which is where much psychological knowledge had derived from up to that point, but by studying healthy, productive, creative individual's lives and careers. He concluded that there were common characteristics which were shared by successful individuals - including self acceptance, openness and respect for other individuals.
Carl Rogers felt that, in addition to Maslow's hierarchical needs, in order for a person to develop fully that they needed to be in an environment which would provide them with genuineness, acceptance and empathy and that without such a nourishing environment healthy personalities and relationships would be unable to flourish.
Humanistic theory is basically about the development of the individual. It was very popular in the 1970's but seems to be slightly out of favour today as Western nations have generally moved slightly towards the political right and there is more emphasis on conforming and contributing to, a slightly more conservative society. Of course, whilst humanistic theory does have a very strong focus on the individual, it is based upon the belief that well developed, successful individuals are best placed to make a positive contribution to society.
Humanistic theory suggests that the achievement of happiness is frequently dependent upon achieving, or giving yourself the licence to, investigate and pursue your own deepest interests and desires.Humanistic Theory according to Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow has been considered the Father of Humanistic Psychology. Maslow's theory is based on the notion that experience is the primary phenomenon in the study of human learning and behavior. He placed emphasis on choice, creativity, values, self-realization, all distinctively human qualities, and believed that meaningfulness and subjectivity were more important than objectivity. For Maslow, development of human potential, dignity and worth are ultimate concerns.
Maslow rejected behaviorist views and Freud's theories on the basis of their reductionistic approaches. He felt Freud's view of human nature was negative, and he valued goodness, nobility and reason. Also, Freud concentrated on the mentally ill, and Maslow was interested in healthy human psychology.
Maslow and his colleagues came to refer to their movement as "third force psychology," the first two being psychoanalysis and behaviorism. The third force is based on philosophies of existentialism and humanism.
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He is famous for proposing that human motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs. The lowest level of needs are physiological and survival needs such as hunger and thirst. Further levels include belonging and love, self-esteem, and self-actualization.
From Maslow's perspective, the drive to learn is intrinsic. The purpose of learning is to bring about self-actualization, and the goals of educators should include this process. Learning contributes to psychological health. Maslow proposed other goals of learning, including discovery of one's vocation or destiny; knowledge of values; realization of life as precious, acquisition of peak experiences, sense of accomplishment, satisfaction of psychological needs, awareness of beauty and wonder in life, impulse control, developing choice, and grappling with the critical existential problems of life.
Maslow's theory of learning highlighted the differences between experiential knowledge and spectator knowledge. He regarded spectator, or scientific, knowledge to be inferior to experiential.
Properties of experiential learning include:
immersion in the experience without awareness of the flow of time
momentarily not being self-conscious
transcending time, place, history, and society by being beyond and unaffected by them
merging with that which is being experienced
being innocently receptive, as a child, uncritical
suspending temporarily evaluation of the experience in terms of its importance or unimportance
lack of inhibition, subsiding of selfishness, fear, defensiveness
experience unfolds naturally without striving or effort
suspending criticism, validation, and evaluation of the experience
trusting experience by passively letting it happen; letting go of preconceived notions
disengaging from logical, analytical, and rational activitiesMaslow's Hierarchy of Needs
They consist of needs for oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. We need these for basic survival. Maslow's theory said that you need to satisfy first the basic needs like Physiological needs and Safety needs, to get motivation to truly attain the higher-level needs like social needs and esteem.
When all physiological needs are satisfied and no longer dominating our thoughts and behaviors, we progress to safety needs. A person's attention turns to safety and security for himself/ herself to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm.
Such needs might be fulfilled by:
Living in a safe area
These include the need for security. We often have little awareness of these, except in times of emergency & disorganization in social structure (war time, terrorist acts, domestic violence, natural disasters). Maslow's hierarchy said that, if a person feels that he or she is in harm's way, higher needs would not be attained that quickly.
Belongingness & Love needs
When a person has attained the lower level like Physiological and Safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people like:
Need for friends
Need for belonging
Need to give and receive love
When safety and physiological needs are met, we desire, to be loved by others and to belong. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness & alienation. This involves both giving & receiving love, affection & the sense of belonging (family, friends, social groups).
After the first 3 classes of needs are met, the needs for esteem can become dominant. These involve needs for both self-esteem & for the esteem a person gets from others. Esteem needs may be classified as internal or external. Self respect and achievement are some examples of Internal esteem needs. Social status and recognition are some examples of External esteem needs. Some esteem needs are:
Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, & respect from others.
When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident & valuable as a person in the world. When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless & worthless.
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Need for Self-Actualization
When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then & only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. The last necessity is the Self Actualization or Fulfillment Needs. This includes purposed, personal growth, and the full realization of one's potentials. This is the point where people start becoming fully functional, acting purely on their own volition, and having a healthy personality.
Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be & do that which the person was "born to do." "A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write."
These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness (person feels edgy, tense, lacking something, restless.)
The person must be true to his or her own nature, be what you are meant to be.
Maslow believed that very few people reach the state of self-actualization. Although we all have the need to move toward the goal of reaching our full potential, other needs may get in the way.
Misconceptions about Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow himself agreed that his 5-level need hierarchy oversimplifies the relationship between needs & behavior. The order of needs makes sense for most of us, though there may be some notable exceptions (e.g. some people need to satisfy their needs for self-esteem & respect before they can enter a love relationship).
We may so desire fulfilling a need that we sacrifice others below it. For example, a person with a passion for acting might sacrifice his or her hunger, which is one of physiological needs, to pursue a career in acting even though the payment is barely enough and struggling to live while trying to make a name for themselves in the business.
Maslow was interested in studying people who are psychologically healthy. These were people who had become self-actualized. He interviewed these people to see how they were able to satisfy all of the needs on the hierarchy. He conducted what he called a "holistic analysis" in which he sought general impressions from his efforts to understand these people in depth.
What are Self-Actualized People Like?
They tend to accept themselves for what they are. They freely admit their weaknesses, but do make attempts to improve.
They don't worry excessively over the mistakes they have made, but instead focus on improving.
They respect & feel good about themselves. However, this self love is healthy & not narcissistic.
They are less restricted by cultural norms than the average person. They feel free to express their desires, even if contrary to the popular view. These people have frequent peak experiences, in which time & place are transcended, anxieties are lost, & a unity of self with the universe is obtained (birth of a child, marriage, deciding to go to school).Humanistic Theory according to Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers was a central figure in the humanistic movement of personality psychology. He lived from 1902 till 1987. In the span of his life, he was an instrumental figure in the understanding of the individual as a central point of the study of human potential. He believed that within each individual lies an innate desire and motivation to learn in order to progress to a higher level of achievement and self-development.
Both Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers' work became popularly known in the mid-1980s as the human potential movement. This categorization of their work became the ground where psychologists used their conceptual framework to study the impact on one's personality as well as in the field of education, among others. One of his famous quotes epitomized his conceptual framework, "The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and change." This quotation reflected his theoretical conception that people must be able to create a learning curve that will enable them to change towards a new chapter in their self-development. According to Rogers (1951), people can be tuned to learn to unlock themselves from an environment that constricts their potential because of preconceived notions of how they should be.
Rogers believed that people who are restricted by their perception of the environment in which they exist in have a debilitating effect on how they may view their potential. However, if an individual is able to overcome the faulty perception(s) of the environment, and learn to acknowledge the potential to grow, then the individual may initiate steps as well as processes towards this end. Rogers strongly advocated that a growing individual is on where he or she is aware of a progress of ongoing internal change, and an acceptance of oneself.
Rogers further emphasized that individuals will inevitably experience positive development if they are exposed to supportive environmental condition. By his understanding of supportive environmental condition, Rogers believed that social factors contribute to positive development. Rogers (1982), quoted by Pfaffenberger. A, 2007, p 508, "emphatically stated that in his opinion, all humans will display compassion and cooperation if they are provided with the appropriate environmental supports." Therefore, Rogers was of the view that learning in a supportive environmental condition was crucial to the development of oneself.
In a much later publication, Rogers (1982) also placed emphasis on growth-enhancing relationships that facilitate inner awareness and congruence which allowed motivation of effort towards a certain objective. Rogers postulated that relationships that provide for an awareness of oneself in differing situations can lead to personal growth. For example, if a child learns that he or she is nurtured in a caring family and with acceptance (relationship factor), he or she is more adapted to see situational variables (such as studies, or skill based acquisition) as motivation towards achieving objectives. However, it is notable that this presumption of Rogers may be faulty because it is argued that situational variables can also work to the detriment of the individual. In contrast, Abraham Maslow (1968) explicitly acknowledged that difficult circumstances can also be growth-enhancing. Much research had been conducted to investigate how growth-enhancing relationships and situational variables may trigger different affect. One of the more definitive studies was conducted by L. King (2001), (quoted by Pfaffenberger. A, 2007, p 510). In this study, King investigated the influence of challenging and limiting life events on personality development as measured by Loevinger's (1976) SCT - Sentence Completion Test. The study concluded that cognitive abilities and personality structures interact with life circumstances, and that the nature of this interaction is relevant to whether growth occurs (p, 511). This study also supports Rollo May's (1958) theory of existential therapy, where clients are taught to constructively work with their limitations and to create freedom so that they can choose values, meanings, and their levels of commitment.Theoretical orientations of Roger's humanistic concept:
The humanistic orientation of Roger's theory can be essentially encapsulated using two (2) theories. The two (2) theories are the person-centred personality theory and the self-determination theory.Person-centred theory
For almost fifty (50) years since his earlier publication of "A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships", developed under the Client-centred Framework, Rogers (1959), the person-centred movement and client-centred approach towards counselling and psycho-therapy are also generalized to other fields of knowledge. The crux of the person-centred personality theory is the assumption that human beings have an inherent tendency towards growth, development, and optimal functioning.
According to Rogers (1959), quoted by Patterson and Joseph, 2007, p 120, "the person-centred approach offers a dynamic, process-focused account of personality development and functioning,â€¦" What this means is that, every human is born with an innate motivational drive, known as the actualizing tendency.
Actualizing tendency is defined by Rogers (1959) as, "the inherent tendency of the organism to develop all of its capacities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the organismâ€¦development towards autonomy and away from heteronomy, or control by external forces." (p 196) (Quoted by Patterson and Joseph, 2007, p 120)
Every individual possesses some capacity that allows him or her to realize the inherent potential within. One of the key implications of Roger's actualizing tendency lies in how individuals undertake to bring out the potential. According to Rogers, the impact of the environmental conditions is a determining factor. Under favourable social-environmental conditions, Rogers proposed that the individual's self-concept actualizes in accordance with his or her organismic valuing process (OVP). The OVP refers to the evaluation of experiences in a manner consistent with one's intrinsic needs: Rogers summed it by declaring that, "the human infant is seen as having an inherent motivational system and a regulatory system (the valuing process) which by its "feedback" keeps the organism on the beam of satisfying his motivational needs." (Rogers, 1959, p 222).
Even from young, every individual is keen to fulfil some of his or her intrinsic needs; those that are not dependent on externalities or due to any prior learning. An example is how children recognize the importance of exploration whilst learning and/or playing. In the process, children discover more about themselves, about the environment, about others and about life in general. As children learn to correlate these "experiences" into their organization of self-concept, they begin to instil a sense of their OVP - learning to evaluate the experiences based on their intrinsic needs.
The concept of OVP is important to the central theme of Roger's theoretical framework. Important to Roger's understanding is his (1957) terminology of a fully functioning person - an ideal of autonomous psychological functioning that occurs when self-actualization is organismically congruent. This concept is similar to Maslow (1970) and presupposes that individuals must firstly satisfy their most fundamental needs. In his later works, Rogers (1963 and 1964) proposed that the attitudes and behaviours of more fully functioning individuals are consistent with certain internally generated value directions. The value directions include moving toward increasingly socialized goals, where sensitivity to others and acceptance of others is positively valued and where deep relationships are positively valued, and moving in the direction of greater openness to experience, where the person comes to value an openness to all of his or her inner and outer experience ( Rogers, 1964, p 166).
Rogers acknowledged that conditions or the social-environmental factors are not always ideal for the emergence of a fully functioning person. Situations like this give rise to a state of incongruence. There is a state of tension and internal confusion. When an unfavourable social environment is present, the actualizing tendency is thwarted, Rogers (1959). The actualizing tendency is compromised by the conditions of worth. Conditions of worth are conceptualized as the values that are introjected by the individual from his or her social interactions and that stem from the developing infant's need for positive regard from significant others in his or her social environment. In this respect, if an infant receives positive regard that is conditional, then he or she learns to evaluate experiences according to whether or not they satisfy the externally imposed conditions. As the child develops, the conditions of worth are introjected, meaning that they act as an internalized social order and replacing organismic valuing as the principle governing the individual's attitudes and behaviour.Self-Determination Theory
This is a contemporary organismic theory formulated by Deci, E.L and Ryan, R. M, (1985, 1991, 2000) that focused on motivation and personality functioning that emphasizes the central rule of the individual's inner resources for personality development and behavioural self-regulation. This theory is similar to the person-centred theory in that self-determination theory views the individual as an active growth-oriented organism, attempting to actualize his or her potentialities within the environment in which he or she functions. A summary of the self-determination theory carries the following elements:
Human beings are inherently proactive; have potential to act on and master both the inner forces and the external,
Human beings, as self-organizing systems, have an inherent tendency toward growth, development, and integrated functioning,
For people to actualize their inherent nature and potentials, people require "nutrients" from the social environment.
Adapted from Deci and Vansteenkiste, 2004, pp 23-24, (quoted by Patterson and Joseph, 2007, p 124)
In self-determination theory, one of the major sources of motivation and/or OVP is the recognition whether the behaviour is intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Intrinsic motivation/regulation is equivalent to acting in accordance with OVP. At the same time, there are three (3) subcategories of extrinsic motivation that may account for extrinsic regulations.
Perceived locus of causality/ Locus of evaluation - describe the individual's perception as to whether the motivation is located internally or externally = person-centred construct of locus of evaluation (Rogers, 1959),
Basic needs/ Necessary and Sufficient conditions - need for competence, relatedness, and autonomy; essential for facilitating psychological growth and integration, social development, and personal well-being. Competence refers to our need to control outcomes, and to be efficacious in our environment, autonomy refers to the individual's attempts to be a self-determining agent of his or her own attitudes and behaviour, while relatedness describes the urge to be in relationship with others, caring for others, and being cared for by others. Self-determination theory hypothesized that, for the individual to experience an ongoing sense of integrity and well-being, each of these three basic needs must be met throughout the life-span. This hypothesis supports the contention that certain, social-environmental conditions nurture self-regulation based on organismic valuing and lead to a process of growth and change in the direction of healthy functioning and psychological well-being.
Contingent Self-Esteem/Conditional Self-Regard - refers to the influence of people viewed as significant others (Deci & Ryan, 1995; Ryan & Brown, 2003). This is similar to the person-centred view of conditional self-regard.
There exists a great amount of similarities between the person-centred and the self-determination theory. Both theories postulate that the path to psychological well-being involves following an innate guidance mechanism. This understanding is important to the field of learning because each individual has a different subset of characteristics that may promote and/or hinder learning. In this respect, knowing what triggers effective learning, providing conducive environment, taking into account an individual's OVP, social factors, as well as structuring the curriculum are necessary to enhance the optimal level of learning. Humanistic theory proposed understanding humans as a state of "being", a dynamic and ever-changing situation where each individual is seen as always striving to fulfil the potential within.APPLICATION IN EDUCATION
In the field of education, humanistic theory grants educators important conceptual understanding about the role of learners. From Maslow and Rogers, educators have a better insight into the elements of learners' style and dimensions of absorption of knowledge and utilization of skills and abilities. In his paper, "Humanistic Self-Instruction", the author, R. Craig Hogan (1978) suggested that instructors/educators should demonstrate their appreciation and value of the individual learners by viewing them as objects that have unique and specific needs. The negative implications of treating the learners as "empty jars or blank slates" is that many instructors/educators feel that learners are passive receivers only; filling the learners as the instructors/educators wish. This negative implications are serious to warrant attention as instructors/educators may force learners to be receptive and have no obligation whatsoever to consider his or her individuality and autonomy in learning.
According to Chris Argyris, in his book, "Intervention Theory and Method: A Behavioural Science View", 1970, pp 15-16, "we see them (learners) and they see themselves as autonomous, responsible individuals committed to the direction the intervention is taking, making free choices based on sufficient valid information about the means and ends."
It is a common error that most instructors/educators as well as educational institutions assume that learners need to be instructed as to their learning. This assumption works on the premise that effective learning must follow certain syllabus, instructional method(s) and assessment grading. The education system in most countries is mostly rigid; built along the "tried and tested" formula of the existing structure of instructed teaching.
In cases such as these, the classroom may contain students of varying levels of interest, self-management skill, independence versus dependent minded, industrious versus sluggard and bright as well as lesser bright ones. The methodology of teaching would be uniform across all - All are fed the same the same fare at the same rate in the same way. The classroom atmosphere suppresses individuality, autonomy, and freedom by stifling students' initiative to manage their own learning at every level of responsibility. Self-directed learning is minimized (Hogan, 1978, pp 262-263)Combination of group contingencies and cooperative learning in adopting humanistic principles
The conceptual understanding of group contingencies is that it is primarily derived from behavioural learning theory (Bandura, 1969). The theory behind group contingencies is that a group is rewarded if it collectively meets some standard; and the members of the group apply social sanctions to one another to encourage group members to do what is necessary to ensure that the group will be successful (Slavin 1987). Group contingencies are also workable if the reward/sanction is used in tangent to the efforts of individual member of the group. This creates a situation where each individual makes him or herself liable and responsible for the success of the group. In this, the humanist tendencies are activated in each of the individual.
Cooperative learning refers to a set of instructional methods in which students are encouraged or required to work together on academic tasks. Cooperative learning methods may be as simple as having students sit together to discuss or help one another with classroom tasks. Rewards may be offered; as in group contingencies but are not essential (Slavin, 1987, p 31).
An aspect of cooperative learning that is vital is the element of peer interaction. The quality of the peer interaction determines the extent of the learning and the success of the completion of tasks. The effectiveness of cooperative learning is best seen in two (2) studies - (Hulten & DeVries, 1976; Slavin, 1980) which found that providing recognition to student teams based on the sum of their individual learning increased student achievement even if students were not permitted to interact in class. In the same vein, a German study, (Huber, Bogatzki, & Winter, 1982) found that providing students an opportunity to study together did not increase their achievement, but adding group rewards based on individual learning did lead to enhanced achievement. (Slavin, 1987, p 33)
Therefore, the researches listed above clearly supports the position that cooperative reward structures, or group contingencies, based on individual learning of group members are necessary for the success of these methods in improving student achievement. Peer interaction is also found to be important to the success of cooperative strategies. [Webb, (1985), Peterson & Janicki, (1979)]
Students are motivated to engage in elaborated, cognitively involving explanations and discussions if the learning of their group mates is made important by the provision of group rewards based on individual learning performances (Slavin, 1983).
One of the important findings of Slavin's study has found positive effects of cooperative learning non race relations, attitudes, self-esteem and other non-academic outcomes (1983). Humanistic understanding of education is not specifically confined to the individual per se but rather emphasizes on how learners/students are able to gain the right concept of themselves and pursue towards growth. In this, cooperative learning has a major role if the outcomes point to similar outcomes.Humanistic theory and learning in Adult Education
Humanistic application is most seen in adult learning. For most adults, the adage of "more is caught than taught" is true. According to a paper presentation by Jackson, Sanetta. George, Cooks, Alyce; Hackney, Darwyn; Stevens, Claude; and Zumwait, Dave, (2002), this adage refers to the informal and incidental learning that takes place on a daily basis and in most situations. In these situations, the learning revolves around human relationships. It is common knowledge that the psychological learning environment of adults and non-adults are significantly different. By virtue of adults' ability to make decisions regarding their personal growth and development; especially in learning, humanistic theory provides for a deeper insight into understanding the psychological learning environment of adults. The psychological learning environment is defined as creating a climate in which both learners and teachers are able to engage in genuine exchange. (Jackson, et.al) For teachers, this means that learners need to feel a sense of welcome and at ease, attending to the fears and doubts that adults may be experiencing and recognizing that adult learners come with a range of life experiences, some of which may act as possible learning resources; such as pressures, difficult work situations, and domestic concerns (Merriam & Brockett, 1997, p 150). According to Cyril Houle, in his book, "The Inquiring Mind" (1960), he identified three (3) categories of adult learners:
Goal-oriented learners - these learners have a purpose and objective in learning. They are very motivated and directed in learning. Learning may be curtailed as soon as a particular goal has been achieved;
Activity-oriented learners - these learners require the inculcation of activities as an important methodology of learning. Skill-based and outfield learning situations make learning more meaningful and productive;
Learning-oriented learners - these learners know why they engage in learning. Learning becomes a pursuit of knowledge, of growth, and become an activity by itself where the learner is self-directed, and highly motivated.
Therefore, instructors/educators need to be sensitive, self-actualized, collaborative and understand that adult learners bring a wealth of experience to the teacher-learning process. This also calls for instructors/educators to be a partner, helper and facilitator to guide the adult learners towards enhancing personal growth with the learners taking full responsibility for his or her own learning and development.
Instructors/educators can play three (3) important roles in helping adult learners:
Teacher as content expert - the educator must be a master in the field. Even so, the educator must provide allowance for the experience and knowledge the learner brings. This is important because adult learners as well as educators' beliefs are shaped by their worldviews. Learning through this diversity of worldviews guides and promotes an extension of added perspectives and knowledge;
Teacher as skilled performer - using skilled performances to make learning happen. Adult learners are proactive and seek to find the best methods to hone their skills. As per the adage of "more is caught than taught", skilled performance by the educators enhance learning more than what is taught in the classroom or theoretical justification.
Teacher as mentor - perhaps, the biggest influence on adult learners is through providing the appropriate structure, express positive expectations, advocating and explaining, challenging the learners, providing vision that sustains the learners' interest. Daloz, (1998, p 371) as quoted by Jackson, et. al, highlighted that "effective mentorship is akin to guiding the student on a journey at the end of which the student is a different and more accomplished person."
The above roles, if effectively practised, would serve to assist the adult learner in achieving maximum human fulfilment. Paulo Freire believed that one of the fundamental goals of adult education is to be "problem-posing", which ultimately enables learners to be critical thinkers, (Freire, 1999, p 64). The goals of the adult education programme should always cater to the needs of the people being served.
As much as Roger's contribution has been emphasized, it is also important that Maslow's principles are also applicable in education. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, it is safe to assume that people can learn effectively when their needs are met (Hoffman, E, 1998, p 40). This is also congruent with B.W Tuckman, (1992, pp 321-324) whose premise states that learner perceives education in more accurate terms when needs are met and learning becomes the priority. Finally, Merriam, S.B, & Caffarefla, R.S (1991, pp 132-138) discovered that how students emotionally view the world sets the foundation for learning.
In terms of physiological need, schools need to provide the necessary breaks such as lunch, drink, bathroom and making sure the temperature is stable. among other factors in order for learning to be optimum;
For safety need, schools need to ensure that there is controlled classroom procedures regarding safety such as emergency procedures, fair discipline, consistent expectations from teachers, there is an attitude of acceptance, teachers being non-judgemental, pleasant, non-threatening, providing praise for correct responses instead of punishment for incorrect responses;
For love and belongingness, teachers should be empathetic to students' situational factors, be considerate, show interest in each individual, be a good listener, be supportive of students' efforts, show value for students' thoughts, opinions and judgements;
Regarding the dimension of self-esteem, teachers should pace their instruction to fit individual needs, practise scaffolding, focus on strengths, teach and model learning strategies that uphold the self-esteem of students, involve students in class participation, be inclusive, recognize those who perform well and employ cooperative learning strategies.
In terms of self-actualization, teachers should instil in students an expectation that they should do their best, giving room to students to explore and discover their own learning, make learning meaningful by connecting what they learnt to real-life situations and allow students to be as creative as possible.Integrating humanistic learning theory with instructional design
Humanistic learning theory in the educational realm is closely associated with the cognitive dimension of psychology. Learning in the cognitive orientation is viewed as an active, generative process where meaning and understanding must be constructed from experiences (Neisser, 1967; Smith, 1975; Wittrock, 1978). This means that when learning is combined with relatedness to experiences in life, learners are able to link their cognition to the real-world. This is especially evident because all learners bring their existing cognitive structures to every learning situation and the other factor is how the content structure is perceived by the learners; whether it is contrived or inherent in itself (DiVesta, 1974; Frijda, 1978; Thorndyke, 1978, Voss, 1978).
Grouping & sequencing learning objectivesTherefore, it is imperative that the educational importance of these notions is that appropriate instructional interventions must be available at the appropriate time to ensure optimum learning. (Wildman, Terry.M & Burton, John. K, 1981, "Integrating Learning Theory with Instructional Design", vol 4, no 3, p 7)
Conducting needs assessment
Designing or selecting learning activities
Describing student entry behaviours
Performing learning outcome analysis
Designing delivery systems
Identifying/Prioritizing Instructional Goals
A model for a simple systematic design of instruction (taken from Wildman & Burton, 1981, p 6)
The model above provides a conceptual framework how an instructional design operates in a normal setting. However, in the field of education, this design has to factor in the environment that learners operate from. As a result, there is a degree of subjectivity whether a learning design is effective for some and may not be for others.
However, the general idea is applicable when educators are able to address some key questions and issues that are specific in nature to the current needs of students and learners. The correct model of design in instruction is vital because every learner learns in unique and differently from others. The humanistic movement in psychology and education has often criticized the behavioural approach because of the ignorance of "higher-level" characteristics of human nature; namely the ability to recognize and control one's own feelings, beliefs, and general growth towards self-fulfilment. Snelbecker (1974) argued that the humanistic approach can at least have a corrective or "fine-tuning" influence on instructional development, quoted by Wildman & Burton, p 8).
One of the first and immediate steps in the organization of humanistic instructional development is engaging a Needs Assessment. Needs assessment involves recognizing the unique differences of students/learners. On a deeper level, this also means identifying and prioritizing instructional goals that is sensitive to each individual learner. Educators need to be sensitive in designing the mode of learning as well;
Secondly, conduct the learning outcome analysis or known as task analysis. This step involves the goals identified through the needs assessment can be translated into actual tasks that is consistent for students with different abilities and suitable for the targeted variation of cognitive instruction; for example whether the learner is able to grasp inductive or deductive methodology of instruction;
Thirdly, how the entry behaviours are determined. This requires knowledge regarding the different type of processing skills for relevant variations of cognitive based instruction, how it is assessed, and developmental concerns towards the incorporation into the design of the curriculum. This particular step is critical because every educator must be aware where active processing is required, and the readiness to attend to the relevant attributes of the instructional design.
Fourthly, lies in the design of the delivery system. Every educator has to grapple with the question of deciding which delivery system is suitable and appropriate for different needs of learners. Learning objectives have to be factored in as a major consideration. The delivery system must take into account the numerous instructional options to suit the context of the learning outcomes. One of the humanistic delivery system that is not readily practise in the Malaysian educational system is the "OPEN CLASSROOM" concept. The open classroom concept grants students/learners the freedom to choose what they want to learn. This freedom enables learners to maximize their own pursuits of growth and inherently motivate them to develop themselves. Another learning approach that follows the humanistic thought is home schooling. In home schooling, learners are able to adapt their learning to the pace of instruction that is suitable. In Malaysia, the concept of home schooling is not widespread; but it is growing and gaining acceptance among many parents. The emphasis of home schooling is not centred on examination, but the assessment is focused on competency and much more on acquiring skills. There is a lot more flexibility on the part of both educator and learner. Instruction is not highly rigid; it follows a curriculum, but the educator is able to adjust how knowledge and learning is imparted.
Fifthly and finally, the importance of the design of learning activities. Do the activities present a consistent fit to the selection of appropriate materials, delivery mechanism as well as provide support for the mode of learning. Educators need to assess the sort of practical performance assessment that transcends beyond the classroom, and the theoretical knowledge. One of the learning activities that is suggested is based on client-centred therapy. It is a mode of assistance whereby the attention and focus of help is targeted towards the learner. It is essentially used in psychotherapy; it includes the cognitive behavioural component. Some of the learning activities are like providing students/learners practical tasks that they find interesting but challenging. The educator will make allowance for the learner to make mistake(s). If the learner is unable to cope, the educator will intervene and guide the learner through until an answer is found. In so doing, the educator seeks to maintain the learner's self-concept and to instil confidence; even if the task is challenging. In humanistic terms, client-centred therapy helps learners see the potential within them, the capacity to engage in productive effort that will result in some positive outcomes. Educators that adopt client-centred therapy will be able to have a deep and close relationship with the students/learners; in turn, the students/learners would be able to regard the educators as mentors, people that they have confidence would make a positive impact on their learning.Conclusion
It is an undeniable fact that humanistic thinking and psychology has impacted and benefited other fields of knowledge. One of these is in the field of education. Humanistic thinking allows people to recognize the human potential. In this regard, the contribution of pioneering humanists like Rollo May, Abraham Maslow, and Carl Rogers have set the bases for knowledge and insight into the powerful motivation for learning. Humanistic thought has been incorporated into understanding how each learner is unique, possessing different orientations and dynamics towards learning, and also for educators in evaluating the effectiveness of their delivery system and learning activities. Educators need to listen to their students/learners; students/learners should inculcate self-directed learning to enhance and optimize their learning potential. Humanistic thought, taken together with some concepts of social behaviourists, can merge and utilize cooperative learning to enhance and enrich future instructional designs.Request Removal
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