National Governing Bodies Of Sport Definition Essay - Essay for you

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National Governing Bodies Of Sport Definition Essay

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Sport_governing_body: definition of Sport_governing_body and synonyms of Sport_governing_body (English)

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definition - Sport_governing_body Sport governing body

A sport governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function. Sport governing bodies come in various forms, and have a variety of regulatory functions. Examples of this can include disciplinary action for rule infractions and deciding on rule changes in the sport which they govern. Governing bodies have different scopes. They may cover a range of sport at an international level, like the International Olympic Committee and the International Paralympic Committee. or only a single sport at a national level, like the Rugby Football League. National bodies may or may not be affiliated to international bodies for the same sport. The first international federations were formed at the end of the 19th century.

Types of sport governing bodies

There are many types of sport governing bodies. This is because sports have different levels of difficulty, so they can try to organise the people playing their sport by ability and by age. The different types of sport governing bodies are all shown below.

International Federations are responsible for one sport (or a group of similar sport disciplines, such as aquatics or skiing ). They create a common set of rules and organise international competitions. The promotion of the sport is also a task of an international federation. Trusts are organizations or groups that have control over money that will be used to help someone else, such as the Youth Sport Trust. National Federations have the same objectives as an international federation, but within the scope of one country, or even part of a country, as the name implies. They support local clubs and are often responsible for national teams. National Olympic Committees and National Paralympic Committees are both a type of National Federation, as they are responsible for a country's participation in the Olympic Games and in the Paralympic Games respectively. However, a national governing body or NGB is different from a national federation.

Multi-sport event organizers are responsible for the organization of a certain event which contains more than one sport. The best known example is the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the organizer of the modern Olympic Games. General sports organisations are responsible for sports related topics, usually for a certain group, such as the Catholic or Jewish sports groups. General sports organisations can also exist for the army [ 1 ] and other groups, but they usually are medium-sized, as they do not have that much of a budget to work with.

Professional leagues are usually the highest level of play in sport, particularly if they consist of the best players around the world in a certain sport. Because of this, they usually work with national and/or international federations, but there is usually a separation between the different federations. Most professional leagues usually do not have amateur divisions, as the amateur divisions are mostly run in separate leagues. [ 2 ] In addition, most professional leagues are related to other leagues, as players usually attempt to play in the league with the highest level of play. Because of this, promotion and relegation can occur; or, in league systems without promotion and relegation, clubs in professional leagues can have a team in the minor leagues. This enables them to shuffle players who are not doing well to the minor leagues, which will inspire them to contribute more to the team by playing better.

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History of Sports - Term Paper

History of Sports

History of Sports

History of sports can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. During those days admiration for the healthy human body is shown in their sculpture and makes almost a religion of competitive athletics. It was their custom on solemn occasions, including even funerals, to engage in races. This passion leads to the world's first athletic fixture - the games at Olympia, established according to tradition in the year 776 BC and held every four years. At the beginning this was a one-day athletic meeting with a single competitive event. The entire day is taken up with heats for a running race - a sprint the length of the stadium, the equivalent of about 200 meters. In later years more events are added.

In the sports history, the important events that are included in the Olympic Games are discus throw, javelin throw, long jump, boxing, wrestling, chariots, horse racing and a challenge to test all-round ability - the pentathlon. The pentathlon actually starts with contest in four criteria - running, jumping, throwing the discus and the javelin. The winners from these encounters have to meet in a fifth and exclusive contest, wrestling. However, the winner receives a simple token of their victory, a garland of fresh olive to wear on the head. This is essentially a religious festival, in honor of the greatest of the Greek gods, Zeus whose sanctuary is at Olympia.

Looking back to the origin of sports during the Victorian period, sports developed in the context of industrial capitalism and class equality. In this period sport became linked to a moral code defined by the middle classes. Nationwide sport developed through the influence of technology, the public schools and the national governing bodies. Amateur and professional sport became increasingly separated. However, during those years, working class sport in school was limited largely to drill and.

National Governing Bodies - World of Sports Science

National Governing Bodies

National governing sports bodies are found in every country of the world. These organizations may exist in relation to a single sport, such as the United States Soccer Association, or with respect to a group of sports that are traditionally treated as aspects of one sporting discipline, such as the Canadian Ski Association. On a broader basis, the national sports bodies may regulate a wide range of individual sports, such as the national track and field associations, or a sport concept, such as participation in the Olympic movement.

The first and the most durable of the national governing bodies has been the Football Association (FA), the governing body of English soccer. The FA was created in 1863 to provide structure to fast-growing sport of soccer; the FA regularized the rules for the size of the field, dimensions of the goals, permitted equipment, and the rules of play. Once the FA had established itself credibly as the ultimate authority in the English game, it was in a position to sponsor and convene a national championship: the FA Cup, the world's oldest domestic sports championship. The first FA Cup was awarded in 1872, and the modern Cup Final remains a powerful symbol of English sport.

National governing bodies in sport are at the apex of the sport in their country. The national body is supreme within a particular country in the following aspects of the sport, including:

  • The leadership of the national body will generally be created by through the election or appointment of persons from smaller, subordinate regions or states within the national framework.
  • The national body in turn will be the official representatives of the country to the appropriate international sport authority. The various national Olympic Committees that exist in every country of the world are supreme in Olympic matters within their own nation, but are from a part of the hierarchical pyramid below the Olympic apex, headed by the International Olympic Committee.
  • The national body is the supreme authority for the interpretation and the application of the rules of the sport within the country. In many sports, such as track and field, the rules applied by a particular country in its competitions are universal. In other sports, the national body enforces and administers a set of playing rules that may vary from the international standard. Notable examples of rule variation being permitted by a national governing body are in basketball, where the game as played at the amateur level and administered by the United States Basketball Association differs from that supervised by the international body FIBA, and ice hockey, where the North American game is played on ice surfaces smaller than those sanctioned for international competition.
  • The national body supervises all national championship competition, including the selection of a national team.
  • The national body will provide the means by which competition venues are selected; the national body will certify courses, approve stadiums, or otherwise ensure that all standards for the convening of a competition are met.
  • The national body will be responsible for all coaching certification within the sport. In many countries, to coach at a regional or national level, the coach is required to pass such testing as may be determined by the national body. The certification process often involves both technical knowledge of the sport as well as a more generalized expertise in sports theory.
  • Many national sport bodies take the lead in their culture in the promotion of healthy sport practices, often in conjunction with government agencies. Sport education will also include the dissemination of information concerning international rules and competition standards for items such as performance-enhancing drugs.
  • The national body will be the sole liaison in the sport to any companion international body; the national body will also deal directly with international organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

There are a number of sports organizations that have significant control over a particular sports activity on a national level, but which are not a governing body. The professional sports leagues, such as the National Football League (NFL) or the various national soccer leagues in existence throughout the world are professional associations, distinct from national governing bodies in that they do not regulate the sport on a national level. The professional leagues are for-profit entities that do not have any influence or authority over the regulation of the sport beyond the bounds of the league members. Conversely, such national leagues are not bound by the authority of the governing body for the sport established within the country. It is common for professional sport leagues to have a relationship with a corresponding national governing body, such as that existing between the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the United States Basketball Association (USBA).

National Governing Bodies of Sport (NGBs)

National Governing Bodies of Sport (NGBs)

NGBs are typically independent, self-appointed organisations that govern their sports through the common consent of their sport.

Sport England have a recognition process for appointing NGBs which aims to identify a single lead NGB structure which governs a sport at UK, GB or home country level.

The Sport England NGB recognition criteria focussea on establishing if an NGB has achieved a position of pre-eminence within its sport and if it has a reasonable level of organisation and governance. Visit the Sport England Website for more information>>

National Governing Bodies of Sport – Whole Sport Plan investment 2013-17

NGB’s are currently working with Sport England to finalise delivery plans and funding they will receive for the next 4 years. These plans will include detail of projects and programmes that each NGB is looking to deliver across targeted areas of Essex.

Active Essex will be working with NGB’s to help deliver these plans via our Active Networks. to ensure investment reaches local clubs.

Increasing participation, coaching, club development, disability and talent development will be part of these plans.

The 14-25 year old age group and arresting the drop of in sport and physical activity is something NGB’s will look to address. This is part of Sport England’s strategic plan which has already seen investment via programmes such as Inspired Facilities Funding, College Sport Markers and School Games.Your Local NGB representative.

Sports’ National Governing Bodies Disciplinary Procedures

Sports’ National Governing Bodies. Safeguarding and disciplinary proceedings in sport - how fit is your National Governing Body?

Facts
With a myriad of laws and processes to administer and enforce when disciplinary and safeguarding issues arise, the attitude and effectiveness of sports National Governing Bodies (NGBs) is paramount to the reputation of your sport and public confidence.

Sports’ National Governing Bodies (NGBs) are expected to up hold proper standards of conduct and behaviour. Equality, integrity and a reputation for excellence require NGBs to demonstrate fairness, competence and transparency when dealing with issues.

Problems
Disciplinary matters are often dealt with in house, sometimes as a “bolt on” job for busy staff with little or no legal training. They are time consuming, difficult and emotional. And to make matters worse, sometimes policies in place are inadequate.

Failure to have proper policies and to deal swiftly and efficiently with complaints and disciplinary issues can result in expensive legal claims, lost reputation and public confidence and withdrawal of funds from funding bodies.

Solutions – How Positive Intention can help your NGB
We can tailor solutions to deal with your problems and we will help you choose which service or combination of services best suits your needs:

  • End to end service for disciplinary matters including policy drafting and taking over the whole disciplinary process from complaint to hearing.
  • Dealing with any specific part of the process eg presenting cases to panels.
  • Bespoke training for Board members, staff and disciplinary panels to give the skills, knowledge and confidence to deal with issues.

Business Benefits
Managing director Anita Bickerdike will use her passion for working with sports’ organisations and experience of the legal profession to ensure:

  • Your NGB is working to full potential and maintaining a reputation for excellence.
  • Board members are clear and confident to deal with issues.
  • Your procedures are fit for purpose and robust to scrutiny.
  • Your people understand the laws, processes and policies governing your sector.
  • Your staff feel confident, with the support and knowledge they need to be their best.
Connect with Positive Intention – make it happen

Recognition of sports and National Governing Bodies

Recognition of sports and National Governing Bodies Introduction

This section provides guidance on the policy and process by which Sports Councils recognise sports and National Governing Bodies of Sport. This information will be of use to National Governing Bodies who wish to apply for Sports Council recognition or for anyone with an interest in the way the recognition process works.

Recognition is a joint policy, operated by the four Home Country Sports Councils (Sport England, Sport Northern Ireland, sportscotland and Sport Wales,) and UK Sport. Under a new process introduced in 2010, applications for recognition of a sport and a National Governing Body for that sport are dealt with together.

Recognition of sports and National Governing Bodies is subject to application. Applications must be approved by all the Home Country Sports Councils, with the following exceptions:

  • Where a National Governing Body operates in a single Home Country, recognition of the body requires the approval of that country’s Sports Council only
  • UK Sport also needs to approve the recognition of Great Britain and UK National Governing Bodies.
What is a sport?

The Sports Councils do not decide what is and what is not a sport. There are many different opinions as to what constitutes a sporting activity and the Sports Councils do not have their own definition of sport. However, we operate a recognition process to establish which sports we may consider working with. When deciding whether to recognise a sport, the Sports Councils look to see if it meets the Council of Europe’s European Sports Charter 1993 definition of sport and if the sport is well established and organised within our jurisdiction.

What is a National Governing Body?

It is not the role of the Sports Councils to establish or appoint National Governing Bodies. National Governing Bodies are typically independent, self-appointed organisations that govern their sports through the common consent of their sport. The aim of the recognition process is to identify a single lead National Governing Body structure which governs a sport at UK, GB or Home Country level. Our recognition criteria focus on establishing if a National Governing Body has achieved a position of pre-eminence within its sport and if it has a reasonable level of organisation and governance. Sports Council Recognition of a National Governing Body is not a guarantee of funding and neither does it mean we have approved or accredited the quality of its programmes. Recognition does not bestow any official powers on a National Governing Body to govern its sport.

Sports Councils Recognition Policy

Full details of the recognition policy, process and the criteria used to assess applications can be obtained bu contacting megan.griffiths@sportscotland.org.uk .

Sports Councils’ Recognition Application Process

The recognition application process is divided into two stages:

  • Pre-application: assessing sporting activity and governance
  • Full application: assessing wider issues such as competition structure, sporting and NGB development and sporting injury
Downloads

The policies and associated documents are currently being updated.

In the meantime if you need any further information about recognition please contact megan.griffiths@sportscotland.org.uk

  • Date published: 01 Sep 2013
  • Date updated: 26 Jan 2016
  • Published by: sportscotland
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Sports governing body

Sports governing body

This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2012)

A sports governing body is a sports organisation that has a regulatory or sanctioning function. Sports governing bodies come in various forms, and have a variety of regulatory functions. Examples of this can include disciplinary action for rule infractions and deciding on rule changes in the sport that they govern. Governing bodies have different scopes. They may cover a range of sport at an international level, such as the International Olympic Committee and the International Paralympic Committee. or only a single sport at a national level, such as the Rugby Football League. National bodies may or may not be affiliated to international bodies for the same sport. The first international federations were formed at the end of the 19th century.

Types of sports governing bodies

Every sport has a different governing body that can define the way that the sport operates through its afflicted clubs and societies. This is because sports have different levels of difficulty and skill, so they can try to organise the people playing their sport by ability and by age. The different types of sport governing bodies are all shown below:

International sports federations are responsible for one sport (or a group of similar sport disciplines, such as aquatics or skiing ). They create a common set of rules and organise international competitions. The promotion of the sport are also a task of an international federation.

Trusts are organizations or groups that have control over money that will be used to help someone else, such as the Youth Sport Trust .

National federations have the same objectives as an international federation, but within the scope of one country, or even part of a country, as the name implies. They support local clubs and are often responsible for national teams. National Olympic Committees and National Paralympic Committees are both a type of National Federation, as they are responsible for a country's participation in the Olympic Games and in the Paralympic Games respectively. However, a national governing body (NGB) can be different from a national federation due to government recognition requirements. [ 1 ] Also, NGBs can be a supraorganization representing a range of unrelated organisations operating in a particular sport as evident in the example of the Northern Ireland Federation of Sub-Aqua Clubs .

Multi-sport event organizers are responsible for the organization of an event that includes more than one sport. The best-known example is the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the organizer of the modern Olympic Games. General sports organisations are responsible for sports related topics, usually for a certain group, such as the Catholic or Jewish sports groups. General sports organisations can also exist for the army [ 2 ] and other groups, but they usually are medium-sized, as they do not have that much of a budget to work with.

Professional sports leagues are usually the highest level of play in sport, specifically if they consist of the best players around the world in a certain sport. Because of this, they usually work with national and/or international federations, but there is usually a separation between the different federations. Most North American professional leagues usually do not have amateur divisions, as the amateur divisions are mostly run in separate leagues. In addition, most professional leagues are related to other leagues, as players usually attempt to play in the league with the highest level of play. Because of this, promotion and relegation can occur; or, in league systems without promotion and relegation, clubs in professional leagues can have a team in the minor leagues. This enables them to shuffle players who are not doing well to the minor leagues, which will inspire them to contribute more to the team by playing better.

See also References

To what extent can Law be used to challenge the decisions of the governing bodies in sport Essay

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PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY IS MORE ABOUT THE COURTS THAN IT IS ABOUT PARLIAMENT.
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Sport constitutes a major part of life in Britain, however, traditionally, legal intervention in this area has been regarded as unnecessary. Where judges regard sport as 'better served if there was not running litigation at repeated intervals by people seeking to challenge the decisions of the regulating bodies'. Sport being regarded as essentially a private activity, with its own internal legal and administrative structure, resulting in a non-interventionist approach by the courts. Judicial interference has occurred though, where procedural justice

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is breached by the governing bodies, especially where commercial interests are concerned, and the monopoly power, that many of the bodies hold, is exploited. Hence the challenges to the decisions of governing bodies is generally through issues of public law, with varying degrees of success though.

Conceptually, challenging many governing bodies poses technical legal problems, with their status as unincorporated associations. Thus without separate legal personality, the body itself cannot be sued only its individual members.

Recently, with increasing economic

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interests in sport, the significance of decisions in financial terms, has grown, and therefore the amount of litigation. This has been simultaneous to the juridification of sport, with governing bodies often holding wide powers of control, employing internal tribunals to deal with members.

Governing bodies may attempt though to exclude the right of legal redress for its members through its rules which control the sport. In St Johnstone Football Club Ltd v Scottish Football Association Ltd, the SFA prohibited the

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plaintiff, as one of its members from instigating a legal appeal against its decision. This was held contrary to public policy, thus the rule was held void, despite the defendants having agreed to the rule through its contractual membership to the SFA.

Recently though, FIFA have introduced a similar rule limiting appeal to specialised tribunal, which was seen in the case involving Tottenham Hotspurs. Therefore it is uncertain whether the courts would allow such a rule with no challenge yet

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to be made. However, one important factor in this case is that an independent tribunal was employed, which was not available in St Johnstone. In view of this, the courts may allow such a rule, providing that the tribunal is seen to be fair.

For the decision to be considered in law, it is necessary for all internal remedies to have exhausted. In Calvin v Carr, a original void decision made by a stewards inquiry was overturned by the internal

TERRORISM
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appeal committee. This stage was held to be necessary before legal redress was sought, with bodies having the power to cure its own void decisions, provided matters were conducted fairly.

The two main grounds for a challenge through law is under judicial review or breach of natural justice, examining the procedural fairness of the governing body, and whether the decision was unreasonable or arbitrary.

Under judicial review, the court is initially required to decide whether the body is actually reviewable

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under Order 53 of the Supreme Court Act 1981. This though is a major obstacle, the law generally only allowing review of decisions where rights or benefits of individuals and matters of public law are involved. What bodies should be dealt with under public law has caused much debate, in and outside of a sporting context. Traditionally, only bodies created through statute or Royal Prerogative would qualify, but with reform of the public sector and the introduction of contracting out,

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many private bodies now perform public functions, and consequently are reviewable.

The significance of the public/private distinction and the right to review lie in the remedies available. For under private law, often unequal bargaining power results in contracting parties being unable to change unfair rules resulting in arbitrary government. Where public law is concerned though, arbitrariness may be challenged and subsequently changed under the processes of judicial review.

In Law v National Greyhound Racing Club, a trainer's licence was revoked

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by the defendant following a domestic tribunal. On appeal, despite the public effect of the decision, the contractual relationship between the parties excluded judicial review, the defendant having no rights or duties towards the general public.

R v Disciplinary Committee of the Jockey Club exparte Massingberd-Mundy, concerned a challenge of the powers of the Jockey Club under judicial review. The court was bound by the decision in Law, being unable to distinguish the two bodies, hence found the Jockey Club

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not subject to review. Lord Justice Neil, stated though, that but for Law, it would be concluded that there was a right of review over certain decisions.

Subsequently, in R v Jockey Club exparte RAM Racecourses, the court was once again bound by Law regarding the right of review of Jockey Club decisions, with the majority of decisions being excluded by contract. Lord Simon Brown, stated obiter, that where the power exercised was 'quasi-licensing' this could be subject to review.

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Recently, the Court of Appeal in R v Disciplinary Committee of the Jockey Club exparte Aga Khan, upheld the notion that the Jockey Club is a domestic body, whose relationships were based on contract, thus not subject to judicial review. Whilst in R v Football Association exparte Football League, the FA was judged to be a domestic body, its powers being derived from private law, despite its monopoly over an area of national importance. The FA not been underpinned, in

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any way, by the State, and in its absence an equivalent body would have been established by the private sector and not the Government.

It seems that courts are reluctant to find a general right of review for governing bodies despite their monopoly power and its potential to effect the public. Even though it was acknowledged in the Aga Khan case that but for the existence of a voluntary governing association, a statutory body would have been established. The key

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factor in all the decisions involving the governing bodies though, seem to concern the contractual relationships of the parties, that exclude review. Hence, cases of a sporting context have yet to develop the flexibility of Roy v Kensington & ;Chelsea & ;Westminster Family Planning Council, in allowing review where the public issues are sufficient to overlook the private nature of the body. The Jockey Club is able to raise many public issues, in light of the public interest and revenue

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created through betting but is still not subject to review. Therefore it is likely that other bodies generally will not be reviewable, the courts regarding its administrative structure as adequate to deal with problems. With the body reflecting integrity and aiming to protect the fundamental interests of the sport.

Further problems arise when the governing bodies of amateur sport are involved. In Currie v Barton, the decisions of a county tennis association were not reviewable, with livelihood not effected, the

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player in question being an amateur.

Grounds of judicial intervention also arise where there is evidence of non-compliance with rules or bad faith.

Non-compliance of rules is most commonly found in the ultra vires acts of the governing bodies. In Everton v Football Association, all English clubs were banned from European competition by the FA, in light of the Heysel disaster, leading to claims of ultra vires. The courts under public emotional pressure to uphold the decision were seen to

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side step the issues. Resolving that the power was derived from UEFA which was based in Switzerland was outside of the court's jurisdiction. The decision of the FA was subsequently upheld with no finding of ultra vires.

In Davis v Carew-Pole, the court judged that the stewards of the National Hunt Committee had acted ultra vires in disqualification of a stable keeper. Where the alleged offence had not been committed or subject to the rules applied, and the disqualification was

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for an indefinite period which was contrary to the rules of the Committee.

Further examples of non-compliance involve the misinterpretation of rules. Guidelines were laid down in Rush v Modified Sprint Car Association of NSW, where the court held that strict constructions were to be used, looking at the exact wording of the rule to avoid ambiguity. Ignoring or changing the rules retrospectively, also amount to non-compliance, and are liable to challenge in law. However, there is a lack of authority in the sporting context, although it is argued that if the matter is sub judice, any tampering to the rules can leave the decision void.

Therefore, governing bodies can be challenged in law, where its decisions fail to comply with the law, which will be given a narrow interpretation.

Bad faith may also be used as a ground to challenge the decisions of governing bodies. This involves insufficiency of facts to support the decision, to the extent that bad faith in making the decision may be inferred. Bad faith may also arise where the decision is seen to be totally arbitrary or unreasonable. In Calvin, bad faith would only be inferred from a domestic tribunal where

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