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paradigm an example, model, pattern or standard A cognitive model for explaining a set of data Paradigm Shift A change in the perception of information An example that serves as pattern or model An overarching model A concept that is either so widely accepted, or applicable to so many different areas, that it can be used to build sub-models to describe particular areas of interest A collection of the major assumptions, concepts, and propositions in a substantive area of work or knowledge Paradigms serve to orient research and theorizing in an area, and resemble models Paradigms describe "approaches" and compactly codify central concepts and their relations An acquired way of thinking about something that shapes thought and action in ways that are both conscious and unconscious Paradigms are essential because they provide a culturally shared model for how to think and act, but they can present major obstacles to adopting newer, better approaches Introduced by Thomas Kuhn in his 1962 work,The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, the concept of paradigm is linked to a "coherent tradition of scientific research (p 11) " Examples include Newtonian mechanics or Copernican astronomy To say that a group of scientists shares a certain paradigm means that they have a common "way of seeing the world and of practicing science in it (p 4) " An archetypal solution to a problem [News about the passing away of Thomas Kuhn, NY Times obituary, 19 June 1996] http: //www brint com/kuhnnews htm Pronounced 'pa-ra-dime,' it is a global mind-set, the glasses through which society views the world Historian Thomas Kuhn coined it in 1962 A paradigm shift occurs when society sees the world through the new mind-set (1) (Mertens, 2003) A conceptual model of a person’s worldview, complete with the assumptions that are associated with that view (2) (Caracelli and Green, 2003) paradigms are social constructions, historically and culturally embedded discourse practices, and therefore neither inviolate nor unchanging Back to the top A set of beliefs that defines the ways in which we think and act Paradigms categorize information as a way of compressing it; however, information which does not fit the paradigm is usually ignored A paradigm is a clear and typical example of something. He had become the paradigm of the successful man A paradigm is a model for something which explains it or shows how it can be produced. a new paradigm of production model, ideal; mold, form; example, pattern a general agreement of belief of how the world works; what could be called ``common sense'' A general conception, model, or "worldview" that may be influential in shaping the development of a discipline or subdiscipline (For example, "The classical, positivist social science paradigm in evaluation ") A model or pattern that an individual or group uses in trying to understand something Present-day biblical scholars usually name and describe the paradigm they are using when presenting their results or opinions Sometimes "paradigm" is used synonymously with "methodology," but often it has a broader connotation, more like "world-view " A hundred years ago, biblical scholarship concerned itself mostly with trying to discover the original audience, authorial intention, and historical setting of the biblical text, because people believed that only the original context could tell us what the Bible really meant Nowadays scholars are operating under a different paradigm, which believes in a multiplicity of contexts and meanings In general, pattern, exemplar, or example (especially an outstanding or unproblematic example); more technically, a theoretical, methodological, or heuristic framework Originally meaning the exemplification of the rule, the term paradigm has become the rule that governs the example In modern structural linguistics, particularly with Roman Jakobson , the paradigm is defined by complementary opposition to the syntagm, the paradigmatic axis being the system of associations from which the constitutive elements of the discursive chain, or syntagm, are selected "A paradigm is a set of rules and regulations (written or unwritten) that does two things: 1) it establishes or defines boundaries; and 2) it tells you how to behave inside the boundaries in order to be successful" (Joel Arthur Barker) "A shared set of assumptions The paradigm is the way we perceive the world; water to the fish The paradigm explains the world to us and helps us to predict its behavior When we are in the middle of the paradigm, it is hard to imagine any other paradigm" (Adam Smith) "A paradigm is a framework of thought a scheme for understanding and explaining certain aspects of reality" (Marilyn Ferguson) From the Greek paradeigma, which means 'model, pattern, example" a theoretical framework that forms the basis for hypotheses and explanations
beispiel. musterbeispiel. paradigmaResimler Wort des Tages
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Die kognitiven Wende löste in den 70er Jahren die Erfassung sozialer Stereotype durch Fragebogen in der kognitiven Sozialpsychologie durch das Priming-Paradigma ab. Ziel der Arbeit war es, aus der Analyse bisheriger Untersuchungen geeignete Kriterien für den Nachweis automatischer Aktivierung bei der Stereotyperfassung abzuleiten. Im Rahmen eines neuen experimentellen Ansatzes wurde deren Effektivität im Vergleich zu einer klassischen Vorgehensweise anhand des Altersstereotyps überprüft. Umfangreiche Voruntersuchungen dienten der technischen Operationalisierung am Computer und der Auswahl geeigneten Stimulusmaterials. Ziel der ersten Hauptuntersuchung war es, den Nachweis von Prime-Effekten mit Hilfe der neuen Methode der visuellen Target-Verfremdung zu erbringen. Die zweite Hauptuntersuchung wiederholte den Nachweis mit verbessertem Stimulusmaterial. Im dritten Experiment fand die Prüfung der methodischen Fragestellung in Form eines Vergleichs gefundener Prime-Effekte statt. Der Beitrag der Arbeit ist in der Evaluation einer neuen Methode zur impliziten Erfassung semantischer Assoziationseffekte im Priming-Paradigma zu sehen. Erreicht wurde eine Verbesserung der Messgenauigkeit im Vergleich zur bisherigen klassischen Methode, die auf die allmähliche Target-Darbietung zurückging. Es wird dadurch möglich, zukünftig den Assoziationsgrad bestimmter Charakteristika einer sozialen Kategorie genauer zu bestimmen. Das wesentliche inhaltliche Ergebnis liegt im Nachweis der Differenzierung semantischer und evaluativer Assoziationseffekte durch systematische Valenzkontrolle. Für das Altersstereotyp hat sich dieses Kriterium als bedeutsam für die Neukonzipierung bisheriger Befunde erwiesen, die mehrheitlich seine negative Konnotation betonen. Die Annahmen anderer Studien, welche den Begriff „alt“ als eine übergeordnete Kategorie für verschiedene Subtypen von Altersstereotypen betrachten, konnten durch die vorliegenden Befunde nicht bestätigt werden.Translation of abstract (English)
Along with the cognitive turn in the 1970ies, the assessment of social stereotypes by questionnaires in cog-nitive social psychology was replaced by the priming paradigm. The aim of the present research was to evaluate several criteria that were derived from previous studies and that had proven to be important evidence of automatic stereotype activation. A new experimental approach was compared to the classical procedure, and applied to stereotypes about the Elderly. Extensive pilot work ensured that the technical requirements were met for conducting the experiments on a personal computer, and that adequate stimulus materials were selected. The purpose of the first experiment was to find evidence for prime effects by the new method of visual target degradation. The second experiment replicated the first, but used improved stimuli. The third experiment addressed methodological issues by comparing the prime effects from the classical and from the new target degradation procedure. The methodological contribution of these experiments may be seen in the evaluation of a new method for the implicit assessment of semantic association effects within the priming paradigm. By using this new method, the accuracy of measurement could be enhanced by means of degraded target presentation. Most important with respect to stereotypes about the Elderly was the evidence of the differential impact of semantic and evaluative association that was ensured by controlling the valence of the stimuli. Such control has proven important for the reinterpretation of previous results emphasising the negative connotation of stereotypes about the Elderly. The assumption of other studies using “old” as a superordinate category comprising several subtypes of old age-related stereotypes could not be confirmed by the present research.
* (example ) exemplar * (way of viewing reality ) model, worldview * See alsoDerived terms
* paradigmatic * paradigm shift * paradigmaticismReferences syntagma English Alternative forms
* syntagm (linguistics ) “ ‖syntagma]” listed in the Oxford English Dictionary [2 nd Ed.; 1989Noun (en-noun )
* http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem03.html * http://www.rdillman.com/HFCL/TUTOR/Semiotics/sem3.html * http://www.ticopa.com/HFCL/TUTOR/Semiotics/sem.ex.syntagm.html * http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Romanian+Orthodox+Church
system, syntagma, interrelations, state space, cognition
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3. Sagatovskii V.N. Osnovy sistematizatsii vseobshchikh kategorii [Basis for systematization of general categories]. Tomsk. 1973 – p.431.
4. Tyukhtin V.S. Otrazhenie, sistemy, kibernetika [Reflection, Systems, Cybernetics]. — Moscow: Nauka, 1972. – p.255.
5. Menedzhment [Tekst]: uchebnoe posobie [Management [Text]: a tutorial]/ Yu. V.Kuznetsov, V. I.Podlesnykh, V. V.Abakumov i dr.; Red. Yu. V.Kuznetsov, V. I.Podlesnykh; Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi universitet [St. Petersburg State University], Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi institut tochnoi mekhaniki i optiki (Tekhnicheskii universitet) [St. Petersburg State Institute of Fine Mechanics and Optics (Technical University)], Sankt-Peterburgskaya gosudarstvennaya inzhenerno-ekonomicheskaya akademiya [St. Petersburg State Academy of Engineering and Economics]. - Saint Petersburg: Biznes-pressa, 2001. – p.432.
6. Bir St. Kibernetika i upravlenie proizvodstvom [Cybernetics and production management]. Per. s angl. [Translated from English] V. Ya. Altaeva. — Moscow: Nauka, 1963. — p.276. V novom izdanii: Kibernetika i menedzhment [The new edition: Cybernetics and Management], Stafford Beer; per. angl. [translated from English] V. Altaev. — Moscow: KomKniga, 2011. — p.280.
7. Shiyan A. A. Ekonomicheskaya kibernetika: Vvedenie v modelirovanie sotsial'nykh i ekonomicheskikh sistem. Elektronnyi resurs. [Economic Cybernetics: Introduction to modeling of social and economic systems. Electronic resource.], A. A. Shiyan. p.129. Rezhim dostupa [access mode]: http://www.soctech.narod.ru/Texts/ek.zip
8. Bertalanfi, L. fon. Obshchaya teoriya sistem - obzor problem i rezul'tatov [General systems theory - an overview of problems and results]. - V kn. [Book]: Sistemnye issledovaniya [System Research], Ezhegodnik [Annual], Moscow: - Nauka, 1969. – p.201.
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14. Losev A.F. Filosofiya imeni [The philosophy of name], Samoe samo: Sochineniya [The most itself: Compositions]. — Moscow: EKSMO-Press, 1999. — p.1024.
15. Nikolko, V. N. Teoriya opredelenii: uch. pos. po logike dlya studentov vsekh form obucheniya [Theory of definitions: a tut. on logic for students of all forms of learning], V. N. Nikolko; rets. [rev.] I. I. Kal'noi, rets. [rev.] A. P. Tsvetkov; M-vo obrazovaniya i nauki Ukrainy [Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine], TNU im. V.I. Vernadskogo [TNU named after Vernadskiy], Kaf. Filosofii [Department of Philosophy]. - Simferopol, 2002. – p.80.
16. Ocherki novoi gnoseologii [Sketches of a new epistemology]. V 4-kh ch. [In 4 p.]. Ocherk I [Essay I]. Osnovnaya sintagma: nalozhenie printsipov sistematizatsii filosofskogo znaniya [The main Syntagma: the imposition of the principles of systematization of philosophical knowledge], E.A. Taisina. – Kazan: Kazan. gos. energ. un-t [Kazan State Power Engineering University], 2009. – p.117.
The present paper targets at the analysis of indirect and direct speech as main techniques of intertextual representation in English media discourse and subjects to conscious scrutiny the relationship between quotation sources and the way it is introduced in the text, considering reporting verbs and authors’ intentions while resorting to intertextuality. The article dwells on the comparative analysis of intertextuality representation in two newspaper articles on the natural disaster Hurricane Sandy in the USA and effects authors achieve when using this technique.
Edited by: Z. Y. Fomina.
The series "Modern Linguistic-and-Didactic Researches" presents the results of the research in the area of teaching foreign languages in view of contemporary concepts of education, intercultural communication, theory and paractice of translation.
The article is dedicaded to the use of syntagma and paradigma concepts in the theory of intertextuality.Priority areas
The second issue of Voprosy obrazovaniya/Educational Studies.Moscow has been recently released. The issue features the following thematic section – Recruitment, Education and Retention of Teachers: Issues and Challenges in the Eastern/Central Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Mongolia.
The book is written by B.Ganter and S.Obiedkov. Bernhard Ganter is emeritus professor of mathematics at Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. His main research field is Formal Concept Analysis. Sergei Obiedkov is an associate professor at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow. His research covers topics in data analysis and artificial intelligence, including logical and algorithmic aspects.
Michael Gordin, professor of Prinston University, has published a new review of the books Russkie Professora (Russian Professors) by Elena Vishlenkova, Rufia Galiullina, and Kira Ilyina, as well as Soslovie Russkih Professorov (The Community of Russian Professors) by Elena Vishkenkova and Irina Savelieva (eds.) in the scholarly journal Kritika: Exploration in Russian and Eurasian History.New publications with full texts Books
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The key to humanities freedom lies in its religious and sexual paradigms. Religion, as a social control mechanism, has sought to limit mans sexual freedom. The stigma associated with sexual promiscuity permeates every level of our society. I believe that in time people will demand freedom in the sexual and spiritual aspects of their lives. In order for this to occur a paradigm must be established that emphasizes wholism. Without this wholistic thought conflict can still exist and dogmatic religion is needed to band all the individuals into a splintered and confused mass. Within our current Newtonian paradigm, material realism, true wholistic thought is impossible. The scientific rules of strong objectivity, the notion that objects are independent from the mind and determinism prevent it. Strong objectivity was established when Descartes divided the world in to the objective and subjective spheres. This was done mostly as a compromise with the then all-powerful church, which would rule in matters of the subjective mind while science enjoyed freedom in the world of reality. Determinism is easiest under stood through analogy. Think of the universe as a bunch of billiard balls in a three dimensional pool table called space. If one were to know all the forces acting on these balls at any time it would be possible to extrapolate all future or past positions. This creates determinism and determinism destroys free will. The best example of this phenomenon in society would be the partisan political system and foreign policy. Sociologists and the public in general, see themselves and each other as one of these pool balls being kicked around. In this environment neither self-worth nor confidence is cultivated. These traits are vital in a society that increasingly asks its population to work unsupervised and off of the job site. In 1665 Isaac Newton drafted the theories which set us on the course that led to the materialism dominating our culture. The philosophy of materialism matches the paradigm of classical physics, material realism. Since this revolution our vision has been a mechanistic one. This vision was formed as a direct result of the changes in philosophical and political knowledge that came to light in the mid seventeenth century. The power and simplicity of Newton s three laws of motion and the success of scientific empirical method caused nearly every influential thinker of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to use them as a model. Sociology was no exception to this. Auguste Comte, creator of sociology, first called his new science social physics. Comte delved even deeper into physical scientific terminology when looking for ways to describe the inner workings of social science hence the terms social statics and social dynamics. By subscribing to this worldview of classical physics we give our offspring and ourselves a life full of separation and conflict. Mechanism creates an abyss between humanity and the physical world. There has been no place made for consciousness except as a secondary unintended phenomenon a galactic mistake. It creates a world of conflict and corruption in which everyone looks out for only their own or at bests their immediate families best interests. What then can be done to fix this fragmented state we now find ourselves in? I believe that once again we should base our sociological views on scientific findings. Quantum theory has been in use for over eighty years and is the most successful scientific theory ever postulated. Quantum Mechanics have given us lasers and superconductive materials. It can also restore our place in the world as decision-makers and writers of life rather than passive players. This is accomplished by placing the function of consciousness in equivalence with the collapse of the wave function. It would be out of the scope of this work to do any thing but briefly touch on
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A potential topic for the paradigm shift essay that I am interested in is premarital sex. I believe this to be an interesting topic because of the different views that have been expressed about it through out time. At one period in time it was never thought to exist. One would not have sex before marriage. In some countries this continues to be true. A friend of mine from Egypt explains this to be something unthinkable because it just did not happen. I am interested as to why this is true in some countries but not in the United States.
Conjecture- Does it exist?
I know premarital sex exists, especially because of the media.
Policy- What should we do?
I am very interested in what the policy should be. There has been a lot of discussion on birth control and should abortion be legal. I feel like these topics may add a great deal to the piece.
I plan to find out:
-Why have views on premarital sex changed?
-Does this correlate to the new trend of marriage later in life?
-Does this impact the community positively or negatively?Post navigation