Received: 10 September 1994 Accepted: 27 October 1994Cite this article as: Malkin, A.Y. Rheol Acta (1995) 34: 27. doi:10.1007/BF00396052
Different non-linear phenomena (such as non-Newtonian flow, large elastic deformations, instabilities of different types and many others) are the heart of rheology. Therefore many attempts were carried out to find quantitative, or at least qualitative, models of non-linear behavior. The general or perhaps most attractive way of developing rheological constitutive equations consists in the search for the most general method to describe everything in the framework of a single approach. Naturally, this leads to very complicated and ambiguous equations. Meanwhile, it is reasonable to try another way based on separating observed phenomena into different types depending on observed phenomena into different types depending on their physical origin. An attempt to propose such their physical origin. An attempt to propose such classification of nonlinear rheological effects is made.
According to the assumed scheme three levels of non-linearity are distinguished. There is a group of phenomena which originate as a consequence of finite elastic deformations. This is weak non-linearity related to equilibrium properties of a matter. The second level can be characterized as strong non-linearity. It is related to reversible structure changes, developing in time and connected with changes in relaxation properties of a matter. This group of effects can be treated as kinetic phenomena. Lastly, the third level of non-linearity is connected with breaking or phase transitions induced by deformations. This leads to the most severe consequences and can be treated as effects of thermodynamic nature. It is shown that some well known rheological effects can be explained if we consider them as a superposition of non-linearity of different types.Key words
Finite deformations non-Newtonian equations nonlinearity constitutive equations elastic potential necking phase transitions melt fracture instabilities
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Hi. my name is Ed McHugh and I live in Bedford, Nova Scotia, Canada with my dear spouse Shelly. We have two children – Kate and Colin.
I teach Business full time at the Nova Scotia Community College and part time at Dalhousie, Mount St. Vincent and Saint Mary’s Universities in Halifax.
I write a weekly column for the Chronicle Herald’s Community Herald for HRM North.
Thank you for dropping by.
HEARTLESS just performed their last shows, and our comrade Tanner Douglas captured it on film. CVLT Nation has a long relationship with this band and I know these dude are stand up human beings that have created some pounding fucking songs. More than just a band, we consider HEARTLESS our friends and we want to say rock on homies. To Tanner – keep taking sick photos the only way you know how! CVLT Nation salutes HEARTLESS for having our back from day one! You guys have left the world some great memories to hold on to! Now let Tanner’s photos say the rest; you can actually see the intense love jumping out of them!
Each month, I publish a photo essay. My hope is to capture the essence of a particular location as I continue my pursuit of adventure and exploration, showcase the craftsmanship and creativity of people around the world, and learn from the rituals and routines of different cultures.
This photo essay is from Fez, Morocco. As always, all photos are my own.
I’ll start with this: I love Fez. If you ever have the chance to go, I highly recommend it.
The ancient part of the city, known as the medina, is like a criss-crossing maze of tiny alleyways and thousand-year-old streets. There is a surprise around every corner and a dizzying array of shops selling every item you could imagine. From the rooftop of any cafe in the medina, you’ll see thousands of homes, apartments, and riads stacked on top of one another.
Tucked away in these alleyways and hidden between the stacks of buildings are some unexpected surprises. One of those surprises is the Chouara Tannery. For hundreds of years, Fez has been known for its leather goods. Today, Chouara Tannery still runs a full leather production line using techniques that are largely unchanged from the 14th century.
The main portion of the tannery is composed of a series of dried earth pits, which are used to hold different colors of dye. Each color is derived from a natural sources like plants and trees: brown comes from cedar trees, red from poppy flowers, green from mint, blue from indigo, and yellow from saffron. These colors are used to dye the leather for different products.
The tanners begin by cleaning and shearing the animal skins. I actually saw two men pulling hair off of the skin by hand. The skins are then soaked in a mixture of pigeon feces and cow urine, which apparently removes animal fat and any remaining hair. (This is probably an appropriate time to mention that the tannery has a very distinct smell.)
After drying, the raw hides are then scraped, cleaned, and softened before soaking in the dye. From what I could tell, tanners would then separate the hides into large stacks based on the type of coloration each hide would receive.
After separating, the tanners would jump into a dye-filled pit and soak each piece of leather — sometimes dipping it by hand and other times jumping up and down on an entire stack of hides.
Eventually, after enough soaking, someone would come along, load up both arms with wet animal skins, and take them off to hang dry along the walls and roof of the tannery.
Teaching Essay, Research Paper
Mr. Tanner put me in charge of teaching my fifth grade class how to make Dream Catchers. This was my best, and most memorable learning experience in elementary school. I had to give my classmates step-by -step instructions. Each person needed a twig, a piece of yarn and about five feathers for this project. I felt very proud to be the teacher for this project. This was my best learning experience because not only did I learn how to make a Dream Catcher, but I also learned how to handle a hectic situation and succeed at the same time.
My best out-of-school learning experience occurred when my family and I went on a backpacking trip when I was in high school. We spent a whole week hiking during the day and camping at night. I learned how to put up a tent, catch my own fish, cook over a campfire, and spend seven straight days with my family and still have fun. This was my best out-of-school learning experience because it was very demanding work but at the same time a lot of fun.
I think both of these learning experiences were very beneficial to me. Even though these two experiences were different from each other they were a lot alike at the same time. Both situations were very demanding and fun. I learn best when I am under a little bit of pressure. For example, in high school my grades were always the best when I was playing a sport rather than when I had time off. I also learn a lot when I have hands on experience. In both cases I was forced to do things on my own instead of just being told how to do them. I think my two best learning experiences were very similar because overall they both demanded that I learn and at the same time they were an enjoyable experience.
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Louis Tanner of Destroying Angel and Rick Deckard of Do Androids Dream of
Electric Sheep: Importance to the Thematic Development of "moral men in immortal
worlds" and Body Mind Invasion
How would you feel if you found out you where making love to any android?
Shocked I hope. In this essay l will discuss how Louis Tanner of Destroying
Angel and Rick Deckard of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep are important to
the thematic development of "moral men in immoral worlds" and body mind invasion.
Is Tanner a moral man in an immoral world? What is considered moral or
immoral? We know from reading Destroying Angel that Tanner is a good person.
Tanner is the type of person whom we say would "do the right thing" in certain
situations. He's honest and honorable. If Tanner makes a promise, he keeps it.
He made an agreement with Rattan, where Rattan would be shipped to New Hong Kong
illegally in return for the name of the chain killer. Rattan is a drug dealer
with a lot of money to waste. He's also the only person with the information to
catch the chain killer. To get justice the moral must cooperate with the immoral.
We also know that Tanner is not a womanizer. He had his chance with Hannah but
did not take advantage of the situation: "No Hannah"(136). Tanner had more
worrisome thoughts than making love to a good friend. He wanted the murderer of
all murderers, the chain killer. As a cop he never captured the chain killer.
This person fused chains to people's bodies and then threw them into the water.
For Tanner who was now a retired cop, it was as if a spark lit up in him. All
the old memories fled back into his mind. The nightmare of his partner getting
shot on a "drug bust gone"(13) wrong began to replay in his mind. He had a
conscience; therefore, he could never forget what was done to his partner nor
the victims of the chain killer.
One of the many other themes found in this book was body mind invasion. When
Tanner was still a cop, slugs worked at the police station whose job was to
"solve almost any problem" (16). These people were constantly injected with
reason enhancers to help them solve investigations. Now that Tanner was retired,
the slugs working at the police station probably looked "Distended and
distorted"(16) after all these years of taken drugs. Although they took the
enhancers, they did not help in finding the chain killer. The only person that
could help find the killer was Rattan. He was interested in the new process of
the regeneration of limbs in New Hong Kong. This was a process where your
natural limbs were actually grown back. Rattan would have rather died than have
prosthetic limbs. The only person that could have transported him to knew New
Hong Kong was Tanner. It was a domino effect after that. Both parties got what
they where looking. Rattan went to New Hong Kong and Tanner got the name of the
Louis Tanner developed the themes of "moral men in immoral worlds" and body
mind invasion in a certain fashion. Now l will compare it to how Rick Deckard in
Do androids Dream of Electric Sheep developed the same themes.
Was Rick Deckard a moral man in an immoral world? He lived in a world where
humans were given classification such as chickenheads or specials if they didn't
pass a mental exam. They were being judged by their own to see who was worthy to
go to mars and live a better life. If they passed the test and emigrated to mars,
androids would be their slaves. As slaves the androids had to do everything they
were told. Androids were very intelligent beings and retaliated against their
owners. They were beginning to get lonely and illegally came back to earth. Rick
was a bounty hunter whose job was to find and destroy these androids. At first
to him it was just a job. He didn't have any feeling toward the androids because
they were not human. As his assignment continued, he found that he " '[was
capable of feeling empathy for at least specific certain androids.'"(124) When
he captured Luba Luft at the museum he bought her a book. This book contained a
picture of the painting she was admiring. This showed that Rick began to have
empathy for androids. He then killed her and destroyed the book. Ricks morals
began to get twisted. He knows what his job is but he's physically attracted to
an android. At one point he begins to question himself as a bounty hunter. Phil
Resch tells him "'Go to bed with [Rachel] first and then kill her'" (126). This
in turn would diminish the attraction he had to Rachel. He sleeps with her but
doesn't kill her. Rachel then kills his sheep because she knows Rick loves the
sheep more than her.
Another theme developed in the book was body mind invasion. Rick, his wife
and almost everyone else on the planet had a mood organ. This device had
different settings where each performed a specific function. For example the
number 888 meant "the desire to watch TV, no matters what's on it ".(4) Dick
and everyone else were also dependent on the mood organ for their daily mood or
feelings. Each day they programmed how they wanted to feel: " My schedule for
today lists a six hour self-accusatory depression."(2) Therefore, their life is
run by a machine and maybe that is why they show android type behaviors. For
example people are given classifications, such as chickenheads if they "[fail]
the minimum mental faculties test"(15). People are forced to things they find
terrifying (when Isodore was force to use the videophone). Also humans feel no
empathy for androids when they're killed. Although androids are not human, a few
of them are part of society and participate in it. It's almost impossible to
tell the difference between man and Androids. Man and androids are slowly
becoming one. Man is controlled by a machine and is starting to exhibit android
like behaviors. Androids on the other hand have begun the show human
characteristics. An example is that the androids feel lonely by themselves. It
seems that the distinction between the two is soon fading away. Rick said that
if android questions were added to the empathic question used on the Voigt-
Kampff test, the distinction between man and android would disappear.
After having read both books, l have to say that l enjoyed reading them both.
They were very interesting. Especially their out look on how the future is going
to be. Maybe in ten years androids will be part of our society.